Last Name

Justin D Radolf MD

InstitutionUConn Health Center
AddressMC 3715
MC 3715
263 Farmington Avenue
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    InstitutionUConn Health Center
    DepartmentGenetics and Developmental Biology

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    Publications listed below are automatically derived from MEDLINE/PubMed and other sources, which might result in incorrect or missing publications. Faculty can login to make corrections and additions.
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    1. Kenedy MR, Scott EJ, Shrestha B, Anand A, Iqbal H, Radolf JD, Dyer DW, Akins DR. Consensus computational network analysis for identifying candidate outer membrane proteins from Borrelia spirochetes. BMC Microbiol. 2016; 16(1):141. PMID: 27400788.
      View in: PubMed
    2. Gulia-Nuss M, Nuss AB, Meyer JM, Sonenshine DE, Roe RM, Waterhouse RM, Sattelle DB, de la Fuente J, Ribeiro JM, Megy K, Thimmapuram J, Miller JR, Walenz BP, Koren S, Hostetler JB, Thiagarajan M, Joardar VS, Hannick LI, Bidwell S, Hammond MP, Young S, Zeng Q, Abrudan JL, Almeida FC, Ayllón N, Bhide K, Bissinger BW, Bonzon-Kulichenko E, Buckingham SD, Caffrey DR, Caimano MJ, Croset V, Driscoll T, Gilbert D, Gillespie JJ, Giraldo-Calderón GI, Grabowski JM, Jiang D, Khalil SM, Kim D, Kocan KM, Koci J, Kuhn RJ, Kurtti TJ, Lees K, Lang EG, Kennedy RC, Kwon H, Perera R, Qi Y, Radolf JD, Sakamoto JM, Sánchez-Gracia A, Severo MS, Silverman N, Šimo L, Tojo M, Tornador C, Van Zee JP, Vázquez J, Vieira FG, Villar M, Wespiser AR, Yang Y, Zhu J, Arensburger P, Pietrantonio PV, Barker SC, Shao R, Zdobnov EM, Hauser F, Grimmelikhuijzen CJ, Park Y, Rozas J, Benton R, Pedra JH, Nelson DR, Unger MF, Tubio JM, Tu Z, Robertson HM, Shumway M, Sutton G, Wortman JR, Lawson D, Wikel SK, Nene VM, Fraser CM, Collins FH, Birren B, Nelson KE, Caler E, Hill CA. Genomic insights into the Ixodes scapularis tick vector of Lyme disease. Nat Commun. 2016; 7:10507. PMID: 26856261.
      View in: PubMed
    3. Seña AC, Zhang XH, Li T, Zheng HP, Yang B, Yang LG, Salazar JC, Cohen MS, Moody MA, Radolf JD, Tucker JD. A systematic review of syphilis serological treatment outcomes in HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected persons: rethinking the significance of serological non-responsiveness and the serofast state after therapy. BMC Infect Dis. 2015; 15:479. PMID: 26511465; PMCID: PMC4625448.
    4. Bauer WJ, Luthra A, Zhu G, Radolf JD, Malkowski MG, Caimano MJ. Structural characterization and modeling of the Borrelia burgdorferi hybrid histidine kinase Hk1 periplasmic sensor: A system for sensing small molecules associated with tick feeding. J Struct Biol. 2015 Oct; 192(1):48-58. PMID: 26321039; PMCID: PMC4605270 [Available on 10/01/16].
    5. Caimano MJ, Dunham-Ems S, Allard AM, Cassera MB, Kenedy M, Radolf JD. Cyclic di-GMP modulates gene expression in Lyme disease spirochetes at the tick-mammal interface to promote spirochete survival during the blood meal and tick-to-mammal transmission. Infect Immun. 2015 Aug; 83(8):3043-60. PMID: 25987708; PMCID: PMC4496621 [Available on 02/01/16].
    6. Luthra A, Anand A, Hawley KL, LeDoyt M, La Vake CJ, Caimano MJ, Cruz AR, Salazar JC, Radolf JD. A Homology Model Reveals Novel Structural Features and an Immunodominant Surface Loop/Opsonic Target in the Treponema pallidum BamA Ortholog TP_0326. J Bacteriol. 2015 Jun; 197(11):1906-20. PMID: 25825429; PMCID: PMC4420902 [Available on 12/01/15].
    7. Anand A, LeDoyt M, Karanian C, Luthra A, Koszelak-Rosenblum M, Malkowski MG, Puthenveetil R, Vinogradova O, Radolf JD. Bipartite Topology of Treponema pallidum Repeat Proteins C/D and I: OUTER MEMBRANE INSERTION, TRIMERIZATION, AND PORIN FUNCTION REQUIRE A C-TERMINAL ß-BARREL DOMAIN. J Biol Chem. 2015 May 8; 290(19):12313-31. PMID: 25805501; PMCID: PMC4424362 [Available on 05/08/16].
    8. Luthra A, Anand A, Radolf JD. Treponema pallidum in Gel Microdroplets: A Method for Topological Analysis of BamA (TP0326) and Localization of Rare Outer Membrane Proteins. Methods Mol Biol. 2015; 1329:67-75. PMID: 26427677.
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    9. Iyer R, Caimano MJ, Luthra A, Axline D, Corona A, Iacobas DA, Radolf JD, Schwartz I. Stage-specific global alterations in the transcriptomes of Lyme disease spirochetes during tick feeding and following mammalian host adaptation. Mol Microbiol. 2015 Feb; 95(3):509-38. PMID: 25425211; PMCID: PMC4429771 [Available on 02/01/16].
    10. Bockenstedt LK, Radolf JD. Xenodiagnosis for posttreatment Lyme disease syndrome: resolving the conundrum or adding to it? Clin Infect Dis. 2014 Apr; 58(7):946-8. PMID: 24523213; PMCID: PMC3952604.
    11. Brandt KS, Patton TG, Allard AS, Caimano MJ, Radolf JD, Gilmore RD. Evaluation of the Borrelia burgdorferi BBA64 protein as a protective immunogen in mice. Clin Vaccine Immunol. 2014 Apr; 21(4):526-33. PMID: 24501342; PMCID: PMC3993113.
    12. Salman-Dilgimen A, Hardy PO, Radolf JD, Caimano MJ, Chaconas G. HrpA, an RNA helicase involved in RNA processing, is required for mouse infectivity and tick transmission of the Lyme disease spirochete. PLoS Pathog. 2013; 9(12):e1003841. PMID: 24367266; PMCID: PMC3868530.
    13. Kenedy MR, Luthra A, Anand A, Dunn JP, Radolf JD, Akins DR. Structural modeling and physicochemical characterization provide evidence that P66 forms a ß-barrel in the Borrelia burgdorferi outer membrane. J Bacteriol. 2014 Feb; 196(4):859-72. PMID: 24317399; PMCID: PMC3911182.
    14. Harman M, Vig DK, Radolf JD, Wolgemuth CW. Viscous dynamics of Lyme disease and syphilis spirochetes reveal flagellar torque and drag. Biophys J. 2013 Nov 19; 105(10):2273-80. PMID: 24268139; PMCID: PMC3838743.
    15. Silver AC, Dunne DW, Zeiss CJ, Bockenstedt LK, Radolf JD, Salazar JC, Fikrig E. MyD88 deficiency markedly worsens tissue inflammation and bacterial clearance in mice infected with Treponema pallidum, the agent of syphilis. PLoS One. 2013; 8(8):e71388. PMID: 23940747; PMCID: PMC3734110.
    16. Anand A, Luthra A, Edmond ME, Ledoyt M, Caimano MJ, Radolf JD. The major outer sheath protein (Msp) of Treponema denticola has a bipartite domain architecture and exists as periplasmic and outer membrane-spanning conformers. J Bacteriol. 2013 May; 195(9):2060-71. PMID: 23457251; PMCID: PMC3624580.
    17. Radolf JD. Pulling the trigger on lyme arthritis. J Infect Dis. 2013 Mar 15; 207(6):877-9. PMID: 23303814; PMCID: PMC3571446.
    18. Cruz AR, Ramirez LG, Zuluaga AV, Pillay A, Abreu C, Valencia CA, La Vake C, Cervantes JL, Dunham-Ems S, Cartun R, Mavilio D, Radolf JD, Salazar JC. Immune evasion and recognition of the syphilis spirochete in blood and skin of secondary syphilis patients: two immunologically distinct compartments. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2012; 6(7):e1717. PMID: 22816000; PMCID: PMC3398964.
    19. Anand A, Luthra A, Dunham-Ems S, Caimano MJ, Karanian C, LeDoyt M, Cruz AR, Salazar JC, Radolf JD. TprC/D (Tp0117/131), a trimeric, pore-forming rare outer membrane protein of Treponema pallidum, has a bipartite domain structure. J Bacteriol. 2012 May; 194(9):2321-33. PMID: 22389487; PMCID: PMC3347077.
    20. Dunham-Ems SM, Caimano MJ, Eggers CH, Radolf JD. Borrelia burgdorferi requires the alternative sigma factor RpoS for dissemination within the vector during tick-to-mammal transmission. PLoS Pathog. 2012 Feb; 8(2):e1002532. PMID: 22359504; PMCID: PMC3280991.
    21. Harman MW, Dunham-Ems SM, Caimano MJ, Belperron AA, Bockenstedt LK, Fu HC, Radolf JD, Wolgemuth CW. The heterogeneous motility of the Lyme disease spirochete in gelatin mimics dissemination through tissue. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2012 Feb 21; 109(8):3059-64. PMID: 22315410; PMCID: PMC3286914.
    22. Hawley KL, Olson CM, Iglesias-Pedraz JM, Navasa N, Cervantes JL, Caimano MJ, Izadi H, Ingalls RR, Pal U, Salazar JC, Radolf JD, Anguita J. CD14 cooperates with complement receptor 3 to mediate MyD88-independent phagocytosis of Borrelia burgdorferi. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2012 Jan 24; 109(4):1228-32. PMID: 22232682; PMCID: PMC3268315.
    23. Radolf JD, Caimano MJ, Stevenson B, Hu LT. Of ticks, mice and men: understanding the dual-host lifestyle of Lyme disease spirochaetes. Nat Rev Microbiol. 2012 Feb; 10(2):87-99. PMID: 22230951; PMCID: PMC3313462.
    24. Eggers CH, Caimano MJ, Malizia RA, Kariu T, Cusack B, Desrosiers DC, Hazlett KR, Claiborne A, Pal U, Radolf JD. The coenzyme A disulphide reductase of Borrelia burgdorferi is important for rapid growth throughout the enzootic cycle and essential for infection of the mammalian host. Mol Microbiol. 2011 Nov; 82(3):679-97. PMID: 21923763; PMCID: PMC3226778.
    25. Luthra A, Zhu G, Desrosiers DC, Eggers CH, Mulay V, Anand A, McArthur FA, Romano FB, Caimano MJ, Heuck AP, Malkowski MG, Radolf JD. The transition from closed to open conformation of Treponema pallidum outer membrane-associated lipoprotein TP0453 involves membrane sensing and integration by two amphipathic helices. J Biol Chem. 2011 Dec 2; 286(48):41656-68. PMID: 21965687; PMCID: PMC3308875.
    26. Hoover KW, Radolf JD. Serodiagnosis of syphilis in the recombinant era: reversal of fortune. J Infect Dis. 2011 Nov; 204(9):1295-6. PMID: 21921204; PMCID: PMC3182307.
    27. Pappas CJ, Iyer R, Petzke MM, Caimano MJ, Radolf JD, Schwartz I. Borrelia burgdorferi requires glycerol for maximum fitness during the tick phase of the enzootic cycle. PLoS Pathog. 2011 Jul; 7(7):e1002102. PMID: 21750672; PMCID: PMC3131272.
    28. Caimano MJ, Kenedy MR, Kairu T, Desrosiers DC, Harman M, Dunham-Ems S, Akins DR, Pal U, Radolf JD. The hybrid histidine kinase Hk1 is part of a two-component system that is essential for survival of Borrelia burgdorferi in feeding Ixodes scapularis ticks. Infect Immun. 2011 Aug; 79(8):3117-30. PMID: 21606185; PMCID: PMC3147546.
    29. Desrosiers DC, Anand A, Luthra A, Dunham-Ems SM, LeDoyt M, Cummings MA, Eshghi A, Cameron CE, Cruz AR, Salazar JC, Caimano MJ, Radolf JD. TP0326, a Treponema pallidum ß-barrel assembly machinery A (BamA) orthologue and rare outer membrane protein. Mol Microbiol. 2011 Jun; 80(6):1496-515. PMID: 21488980; PMCID: PMC3115443.
    30. Cervantes JL, Dunham-Ems SM, La Vake CJ, Petzke MM, Sahay B, Sellati TJ, Radolf JD, Salazar JC. Phagosomal signaling by Borrelia burgdorferi in human monocytes involves Toll-like receptor (TLR) 2 and TLR8 cooperativity and TLR8-mediated induction of IFN-beta. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2011 Mar 1; 108(9):3683-8. PMID: 21321205; PMCID: PMC3048123.
    31. Banik S, Terekhova D, Iyer R, Pappas CJ, Caimano MJ, Radolf JD, Schwartz I. BB0844, an RpoS-regulated protein, is dispensable for Borrelia burgdorferi infectivity and maintenance in the mouse-tick infectious cycle. Infect Immun. 2011 Mar; 79(3):1208-17. PMID: 21173312; PMCID: PMC3067486.
    32. Lee JH, Cai G, Panigrahi AK, Dunham-Ems S, Nguyen TN, Radolf JD, Asturias FJ, Günzl A. A TFIIH-associated mediator head is a basal factor of small nuclear spliced leader RNA gene transcription in early-diverged trypanosomes. Mol Cell Biol. 2010 Dec; 30(23):5502-13. PMID: 20876299; PMCID: PMC2976424.
    33. Cox DL, Luthra A, Dunham-Ems S, Desrosiers DC, Salazar JC, Caimano MJ, Radolf JD. Surface immunolabeling and consensus computational framework to identify candidate rare outer membrane proteins of Treponema pallidum. Infect Immun. 2010 Dec; 78(12):5178-94. PMID: 20876295; PMCID: PMC2981305.
    34. Desrosiers DC, Bearden SW, Mier I, Abney J, Paulley JT, Fetherston JD, Salazar JC, Radolf JD, Perry RD. Znu is the predominant zinc importer in Yersinia pestis during in vitro growth but is not essential for virulence. Infect Immun. 2010 Dec; 78(12):5163-77. PMID: 20855510; PMCID: PMC2981304.
    35. Xu H, Caimano MJ, Lin T, He M, Radolf JD, Norris SJ, Gherardini F, Gheradini F, Wolfe AJ, Yang XF. Role of acetyl-phosphate in activation of the Rrp2-RpoN-RpoS pathway in Borrelia burgdorferi. PLoS Pathog. 2010; 6(9):e1001104. PMID: 20862323; PMCID: PMC2940757.
    36. Cruz AR, Pillay A, Zuluaga AV, Ramirez LG, Duque JE, Aristizabal GE, Fiel-Gan MD, Jaramillo R, Trujillo R, Valencia C, Jagodzinski L, Cox DL, Radolf JD, Salazar JC. Secondary syphilis in cali, Colombia: new concepts in disease pathogenesis. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2010; 4(5):e690. PMID: 20502522; PMCID: PMC2872645.
    37. Parsonage D, Desrosiers DC, Hazlett KR, Sun Y, Nelson KJ, Cox DL, Radolf JD, Poole LB. Broad specificity AhpC-like peroxiredoxin and its thioredoxin reductant in the sparse antioxidant defense system of Treponema pallidum. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010 Apr 6; 107(14):6240-5. PMID: 20304799; PMCID: PMC2851974.
    38. Earnhart CG, Leblanc DV, Alix KE, Desrosiers DC, Radolf JD, Marconi RT. Identification of residues within ligand-binding domain 1 (LBD1) of the Borrelia burgdorferi OspC protein required for function in the mammalian environment. Mol Microbiol. 2010 Apr; 76(2):393-408. PMID: 20199597; PMCID: PMC2917209.
    39. Sahay B, Patsey RL, Eggers CH, Salazar JC, Radolf JD, Sellati TJ. CD14 signaling restrains chronic inflammation through induction of p38-MAPK/SOCS-dependent tolerance. PLoS Pathog. 2009 Dec; 5(12):e1000687. PMID: 20011115; PMCID: PMC2781632.
    40. Samuels DS, Radolf JD. Who is the BosR around here anyway? Mol Microbiol. 2009 Dec; 74(6):1295-9. PMID: 19943896; PMCID: PMC3005592.
    41. Dunham-Ems SM, Caimano MJ, Pal U, Wolgemuth CW, Eggers CH, Balic A, Radolf JD. Live imaging reveals a biphasic mode of dissemination of Borrelia burgdorferi within ticks. J Clin Invest. 2009 Dec; 119(12):3652-65. PMID: 19920352; PMCID: PMC2786795.
    42. Izard J, Renken C, Hsieh CE, Desrosiers DC, Dunham-Ems S, La Vake C, Gebhardt LL, Limberger RJ, Cox DL, Marko M, Radolf JD. Cryo-electron tomography elucidates the molecular architecture of Treponema pallidum, the syphilis spirochete. J Bacteriol. 2009 Dec; 191(24):7566-80. PMID: 19820083; PMCID: PMC2786590.
    43. Salazar JC, Duhnam-Ems S, La Vake C, Cruz AR, Moore MW, Caimano MJ, Velez-Climent L, Shupe J, Krueger W, Radolf JD. Activation of human monocytes by live Borrelia burgdorferi generates TLR2-dependent and -independent responses which include induction of IFN-beta. PLoS Pathog. 2009 May; 5(5):e1000444. PMID: 19461888; PMCID: PMC2679197.
    44. Radolf JD, Desrosiers DC. Treponema pallidum, the stealth pathogen, changes, but how? Mol Microbiol. 2009 Jun; 72(5):1081-6. PMID: 19432802; PMCID: PMC2975512.
    45. Wormser GP, Shapiro ED, Halperin JJ, Porwancher RB, O'Connell S, Nadelman RB, Strle F, Radolf JD, Hovius JW, Baker PJ, Fingerle V, Dattwyler R. Analysis of a flawed double-blind, placebo-controlled, clinical trial of patients claimed to have persistent Lyme disease following treatment. Minerva Med. 2009 Apr; 100(2):171-2. PMID: 19390504.
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    46. Olson CM, Bates TC, Izadi H, Radolf JD, Huber SA, Boyson JE, Anguita J. Local production of IFN-gamma by invariant NKT cells modulates acute Lyme carditis. J Immunol. 2009 Mar 15; 182(6):3728-34. PMID: 19265151; PMCID: PMC2679988.
    47. Mulay VB, Caimano MJ, Iyer R, Dunham-Ems S, Liveris D, Petzke MM, Schwartz I, Radolf JD. Borrelia burgdorferi bba74 is expressed exclusively during tick feeding and is regulated by both arthropod- and mammalian host-specific signals. J Bacteriol. 2009 Apr; 191(8):2783-94. PMID: 19218390; PMCID: PMC2668432.
    48. Tupin E, Benhnia MR, Kinjo Y, Patsey R, Lena CJ, Haller MC, Caimano MJ, Imamura M, Wong CH, Crotty S, Radolf JD, Sellati TJ, Kronenberg M. NKT cells prevent chronic joint inflammation after infection with Borrelia burgdorferi. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008 Dec 16; 105(50):19863-8. PMID: 19060201; PMCID: PMC2604993.
    49. Radolf JD, Caimano MJ. The long strange trip of Borrelia burgdorferi outer-surface protein C. Mol Microbiol. 2008 Jul; 69(1):1-4. PMID: 18399935.
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    50. Wormser GP, Barthold SW, Shapiro ED, Dattwyler RJ, Bakken JS, Steere AC, Bockenstedt LK, Radolf JD. Anti-tumor necrosis factor-alpha activation of Borrelia burgdorferi spirochetes in antibiotic-treated murine Lyme borreliosis: an unproven conclusion. J Infect Dis. 2007 Dec 15; 196(12):1865-6; author reply 1866-7. PMID: 18190269.
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    51. Cruz AR, Moore MW, La Vake CJ, Eggers CH, Salazar JC, Radolf JD. Phagocytosis of Borrelia burgdorferi, the Lyme disease spirochete, potentiates innate immune activation and induces apoptosis in human monocytes. Infect Immun. 2008 Jan; 76(1):56-70. PMID: 17938216; PMCID: PMC2223637.
    52. Feder HM, Johnson BJ, O'Connell S, Shapiro ED, Steere AC, Wormser GP. A critical appraisal of "chronic Lyme disease". N Engl J Med. 2007 Oct 4; 357(14):1422-30. PMID: 17914043.
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    53. Caimano MJ, Iyer R, Eggers CH, Gonzalez C, Morton EA, Gilbert MA, Schwartz I, Radolf JD. Analysis of the RpoS regulon in Borrelia burgdorferi in response to mammalian host signals provides insight into RpoS function during the enzootic cycle. Mol Microbiol. 2007 Sep; 65(5):1193-217. PMID: 17645733; PMCID: PMC2967192.
    54. Desrosiers DC, Sun YC, Zaidi AA, Eggers CH, Cox DL, Radolf JD. The general transition metal (Tro) and Zn2+ (Znu) transporters in Treponema pallidum: analysis of metal specificities and expression profiles. Mol Microbiol. 2007 Jul; 65(1):137-52. PMID: 17581125.
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    55. Wormser GP, Dattwyler RJ, Shapiro ED, Dumler JS, O'Connell S, Radolf JD, Nadelman RB. Single-dose prophylaxis against Lyme disease. Lancet Infect Dis. 2007 Jun; 7(6):371-3. PMID: 17521588.
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    56. Salazar JC, Rathi A, Michael NL, Radolf JD, Jagodzinski LL. Assessment of the kinetics of Treponema pallidum dissemination into blood and tissues in experimental syphilis by real-time quantitative PCR. Infect Immun. 2007 Jun; 75(6):2954-8. PMID: 17438037; PMCID: PMC1932886.
    57. Salazar JC, Cruz AR, Pope CD, Valderrama L, Trujillo R, Saravia NG, Radolf JD. Treponema pallidum elicits innate and adaptive cellular immune responses in skin and blood during secondary syphilis: a flow-cytometric analysis. J Infect Dis. 2007 Mar 15; 195(6):879-87. PMID: 17299719; PMCID: PMC2131710.
    58. Moore MW, Cruz AR, LaVake CJ, Marzo AL, Eggers CH, Salazar JC, Radolf JD. Phagocytosis of Borrelia burgdorferi and Treponema pallidum potentiates innate immune activation and induces gamma interferon production. Infect Immun. 2007 Apr; 75(4):2046-62. PMID: 17220323; PMCID: PMC1865718.
    59. Mulay V, Caimano MJ, Liveris D, Desrosiers DC, Radolf JD, Schwartz I. Borrelia burgdorferi BBA74, a periplasmic protein associated with the outer membrane, lacks porin-like properties. J Bacteriol. 2007 Mar; 189(5):2063-8. PMID: 17189354; PMCID: PMC1855751.
    60. Li X, Pal U, Ramamoorthi N, Liu X, Desrosiers DC, Eggers CH, Anderson JF, Radolf JD, Fikrig E. The Lyme disease agent Borrelia burgdorferi requires BB0690, a Dps homologue, to persist within ticks. Mol Microbiol. 2007 Feb; 63(3):694-710. PMID: 17181780.
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    61. Eggers CH, Caimano MJ, Radolf JD. Sigma factor selectivity in Borrelia burgdorferi: RpoS recognition of the ospE/ospF/elp promoters is dependent on the sequence of the -10 region. Mol Microbiol. 2006 Mar; 59(6):1859-75. PMID: 16553889.
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    62. Caimano MJ, Eggers CH, Gonzalez CA, Radolf JD. Alternate sigma factor RpoS is required for the in vivo-specific repression of Borrelia burgdorferi plasmid lp54-borne ospA and lp6.6 genes. J Bacteriol. 2005 Nov; 187(22):7845-52. PMID: 16267308; PMCID: PMC1280317.
    63. Hazlett KR, Cox DL, Decaffmeyer M, Bennett MP, Desrosiers DC, La Vake CJ, La Vake ME, Bourell KW, Robinson EJ, Brasseur R, Radolf JD. TP0453, a concealed outer membrane protein of Treponema pallidum, enhances membrane permeability. J Bacteriol. 2005 Sep; 187(18):6499-508. PMID: 16159783; PMCID: PMC1236642.
    64. Radolf J. Posttreatment chronic Lyme disease--what it is not. J Infect Dis. 2005 Sep 15; 192(6):948-9. PMID: 16107945.
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    65. Salazar JC, Pope CD, Moore MW, Pope J, Kiely TG, Radolf JD. Lipoprotein-dependent and -independent immune responses to spirochetal infection. Clin Diagn Lab Immunol. 2005 Aug; 12(8):949-58. PMID: 16085913; PMCID: PMC1182186.
    66. Benhnia MR, Wroblewski D, Akhtar MN, Patel RA, Lavezzi W, Gangloff SC, Goyert SM, Caimano MJ, Radolf JD, Sellati TJ. Signaling through CD14 attenuates the inflammatory response to Borrelia burgdorferi, the agent of Lyme disease. J Immunol. 2005 Feb 1; 174(3):1539-48. PMID: 15661914.
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    67. Caimano MJ, Eggers CH, Hazlett KR, Radolf JD. RpoS is not central to the general stress response in Borrelia burgdorferi but does control expression of one or more essential virulence determinants. Infect Immun. 2004 Nov; 72(11):6433-45. PMID: 15501774; PMCID: PMC523033.
    68. Eggers CH, Caimano MJ, Radolf JD. Analysis of promoter elements involved in the transcriptional initiation of RpoS-dependent Borrelia burgdorferi genes. J Bacteriol. 2004 Nov; 186(21):7390-402. PMID: 15489451; PMCID: PMC523197.
    69. Grimm D, Eggers CH, Caimano MJ, Tilly K, Stewart PE, Elias AF, Radolf JD, Rosa PA. Experimental assessment of the roles of linear plasmids lp25 and lp28-1 of Borrelia burgdorferi throughout the infectious cycle. Infect Immun. 2004 Oct; 72(10):5938-46. PMID: 15385497; PMCID: PMC517563.
    70. Liang FT, Caimano MJ, Radolf JD, Fikrig E. Borrelia burgdorferi outer surface protein (osp) B expression independent of ospA. Microb Pathog. 2004 Jul; 37(1):35-40. PMID: 15194158.
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    71. Narasimhan S, Caimano MJ, Liang FT, Santiago F, Laskowski M, Philipp MT, Pachner AR, Radolf JD, Fikrig E, Camaino MJ. Borrelia burgdorferi transcriptome in the central nervous system of non-human primates. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2003 Dec 23; 100(26):15953-8. PMID: 14671329; PMCID: PMC307674.
    72. Salazar JC, Pope CD, Sellati TJ, Feder HM, Kiely TG, Dardick KR, Buckman RL, Moore MW, Caimano MJ, Pope JG, Krause PJ, Radolf JD. Coevolution of markers of innate and adaptive immunity in skin and peripheral blood of patients with erythema migrans. J Immunol. 2003 Sep 1; 171(5):2660-70. PMID: 12928420.
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    73. Fouad AF, Kum KY, Clawson ML, Barry J, Abenoja C, Zhu Q, Caimano M, Radolf JD. Molecular characterization of the presence of Eubacterium spp and Streptococcus spp in endodontic infections. Oral Microbiol Immunol. 2003 Aug; 18(4):249-55. PMID: 12823801.
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    74. Purser JE, Lawrenz MB, Caimano MJ, Howell JK, Radolf JD, Norris SJ. A plasmid-encoded nicotinamidase (PncA) is essential for infectivity of Borrelia burgdorferi in a mammalian host. Mol Microbiol. 2003 May; 48(3):753-64. PMID: 12694619.
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    75. Ojaimi C, Brooks C, Casjens S, Rosa P, Elias A, Barbour A, Jasinskas A, Benach J, Katona L, Radolf J, Caimano M, Skare J, Swingle K, Akins D, Schwartz I. Profiling of temperature-induced changes in Borrelia burgdorferi gene expression by using whole genome arrays. Infect Immun. 2003 Apr; 71(4):1689-705. PMID: 12654782; PMCID: PMC152086.
    76. Krause PJ, McKay K, Gadbaw J, Christianson D, Closter L, Lepore T, Telford SR, Sikand V, Ryan R, Persing D, Radolf JD, Spielman A. Increasing health burden of human babesiosis in endemic sites. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2003 Apr; 68(4):431-6. PMID: 12875292.
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    77. Hazlett KR, Rusnak F, Kehres DG, Bearden SW, La Vake CJ, La Vake ME, Maguire ME, Perry RD, Radolf JD. The Treponema pallidum tro operon encodes a multiple metal transporter, a zinc-dependent transcriptional repressor, and a semi-autonomously expressed phosphoglycerate mutase. J Biol Chem. 2003 Jun 6; 278(23):20687-94. PMID: 12668673.
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    78. Parveen N, Caimano M, Radolf JD, Leong JM. Adaptation of the Lyme disease spirochaete to the mammalian host environment results in enhanced glycosaminoglycan and host cell binding. Mol Microbiol. 2003 Mar; 47(5):1433-44. PMID: 12603746.
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    79. Bugrysheva J, Dobrikova EY, Sartakova ML, Caimano MJ, Daniels TJ, Radolf JD, Godfrey HP, Cabello FC. Characterization of the stringent response and rel(Bbu) expression in Borrelia burgdorferi. J Bacteriol. 2003 Feb; 185(3):957-65. PMID: 12533471; PMCID: PMC142832.
    80. Roberts DM, Caimano M, McDowell J, Theisen M, Holm A, Orff E, Nelson D, Wikel S, Radolf J, Marconi RT. Environmental regulation and differential production of members of the Bdr protein family of Borrelia burgdorferi. Infect Immun. 2002 Dec; 70(12):7033-41. PMID: 12438383; PMCID: PMC132981.
    81. Clawson ML, Paciorkowski N, Rajan TV, La Vake C, Pope C, La Vake M, Wikel SK, Krause PJ, Radolf JD. Cellular immunity, but not gamma interferon, is essential for resolution of Babesia microti infection in BALB/c mice. Infect Immun. 2002 Sep; 70(9):5304-6. PMID: 12183588; PMCID: PMC128260.
    82. Salazar JC, Hazlett KR, Radolf JD. The immune response to infection with Treponema pallidum, the stealth pathogen. Microbes Infect. 2002 Sep; 4(11):1133-40. PMID: 12361913.
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    83. Fouad AF, Barry J, Caimano M, Clawson M, Zhu Q, Carver R, Hazlett K, Radolf JD. PCR-based identification of bacteria associated with endodontic infections. J Clin Microbiol. 2002 Sep; 40(9):3223-31. PMID: 12202557; PMCID: PMC130810.
    84. Krause PJ, McKay K, Thompson CA, Sikand VK, Lentz R, Lepore T, Closter L, Christianson D, Telford SR, Persing D, Radolf JD, Spielman A. Disease-specific diagnosis of coinfecting tickborne zoonoses: babesiosis, human granulocytic ehrlichiosis, and Lyme disease. Clin Infect Dis. 2002 May 1; 34(9):1184-91. PMID: 11941544.
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    85. Lee YH, Dorwart MR, Hazlett KR, Deka RK, Norgard MV, Radolf JD, Hasemann CA. The crystal structure of Zn(II)-free Treponema pallidum TroA, a periplasmic metal-binding protein, reveals a closed conformation. J Bacteriol. 2002 Apr; 184(8):2300-4. PMID: 11914363; PMCID: PMC134957.
    86. Elias AF, Stewart PE, Grimm D, Caimano MJ, Eggers CH, Tilly K, Bono JL, Akins DR, Radolf JD, Schwan TG, Rosa P. Clonal polymorphism of Borrelia burgdorferi strain B31 MI: implications for mutagenesis in an infectious strain background. Infect Immun. 2002 Apr; 70(4):2139-50. PMID: 11895980; PMCID: PMC127854.
    87. Hazlett KR, Cox DL, Sikkink RA, Auch'ere F, Rusnak F, Radolf JD. Contribution of neelaredoxin to oxygen tolerance by Treponema pallidum. Methods Enzymol. 2002; 353:140-56. PMID: 12078490.
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    88. Eggers CH, Caimano MJ, Clawson ML, Miller WG, Samuels DS, Radolf JD. Identification of loci critical for replication and compatibility of a Borrelia burgdorferi cp32 plasmid and use of a cp32-based shuttle vector for the expression of fluorescent reporters in the lyme disease spirochaete. Mol Microbiol. 2002 Jan; 43(2):281-95. PMID: 11985709.
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    89. Ojaimi C, Brooks C, Akins D, Casjens S, Rosa P, Elias A, Barbour A, Jasinskas A, Benach J, Katonah L, Radolf J, Caimano M, Skare J, Swingle K, Sims S, Schwartz I. Borrelia burgdorferi gene expression profiling with membrane-based arrays. Methods Enzymol. 2002; 358:165-77. PMID: 12474386.
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    90. Fouad A, Barry J, Russo J, Radolf J, Zhu Q. Periapical lesion progression with controlled microbial inoculation in a type I diabetic mouse model. J Endod. 2002 Jan; 28(1):8-16. PMID: 11806653.
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    91. Ryan R, Krause PJ, Radolf J, Freeman K, Spielman A, Lenz R, Levin A. Diagnosis of babesiosis using an immunoblot serologic test. Clin Diagn Lab Immunol. 2001 Nov; 8(6):1177-80. PMID: 11687460; PMCID: PMC96246.
    92. Aliprantis AO, Weiss DS, Radolf JD, Zychlinsky A. Release of Toll-like receptor-2-activating bacterial lipoproteins in Shigella flexneri culture supernatants. Infect Immun. 2001 Oct; 69(10):6248-55. PMID: 11553567; PMCID: PMC98758.
    93. Noss EH, Pai RK, Sellati TJ, Radolf JD, Belisle J, Golenbock DT, Boom WH, Harding CV. Toll-like receptor 2-dependent inhibition of macrophage class II MHC expression and antigen processing by 19-kDa lipoprotein of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. J Immunol. 2001 Jul 15; 167(2):910-8. PMID: 11441098.
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    94. Takeuchi O, Kawai T, Mühlradt PF, Morr M, Radolf JD, Zychlinsky A, Takeda K, Akira S. Discrimination of bacterial lipoproteins by Toll-like receptor 6. Int Immunol. 2001 Jul; 13(7):933-40. PMID: 11431423.
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    95. Hefty PS, Jolliff SE, Caimano MJ, Wikel SK, Radolf JD, Akins DR. Regulation of OspE-related, OspF-related, and Elp lipoproteins of Borrelia burgdorferi strain 297 by mammalian host-specific signals. Infect Immun. 2001 Jun; 69(6):3618-27. PMID: 11349022; PMCID: PMC98350.
    96. Hazlett KR, Sellati TJ, Nguyen TT, Cox DL, Clawson ML, Caimano MJ, Radolf JD. The TprK protein of Treponema pallidum is periplasmic and is not a target of opsonic antibody or protective immunity. J Exp Med. 2001 May 7; 193(9):1015-26. PMID: 11342586; PMCID: PMC2193430.
    97. Cox DL, Radolf JD. Insertion of fluorescent fatty acid probes into the outer membranes of the pathogenic spirochaetes Treponema pallidum and Borrelia burgdorferi. Microbiology. 2001 May; 147(Pt 5):1161-9. PMID: 11320119.
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    98. Sellati TJ, Waldrop SL, Salazar JC, Bergstresser PR, Picker LJ, Radolf JD. The cutaneous response in humans to Treponema pallidum lipoprotein analogues involves cellular elements of both innate and adaptive immunity. J Immunol. 2001 Mar 15; 166(6):4131-40. PMID: 11238663.
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    99. Rompalo AM, Joesoef MR, O'Donnell JA, Augenbraun M, Brady W, Radolf JD, Johnson R, Rolfs RT. Clinical manifestations of early syphilis by HIV status and gender: results of the syphilis and HIV study. Sex Transm Dis. 2001 Mar; 28(3):158-65. PMID: 11289198.
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    100. Jovanovic T, Ascenso C, Hazlett KR, Sikkink R, Krebs C, Litwiller R, Benson LM, Moura I, Moura JJ, Radolf JD, Huynh BH, Naylor S, Rusnak F. Neelaredoxin, an iron-binding protein from the syphilis spirochete, Treponema pallidum, is a superoxide reductase. J Biol Chem. 2000 Sep 15; 275(37):28439-48. PMID: 10874033.
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    101. Hagman KE, Yang X, Wikel SK, Schoeler GB, Caimano MJ, Radolf JD, Norgard MV. Decorin-binding protein A (DbpA) of Borrelia burgdorferi is not protective when immunized mice are challenged via tick infestation and correlates with the lack of DbpA expression by B. burgdorferi in ticks. Infect Immun. 2000 Aug; 68(8):4759-64. PMID: 10899883; PMCID: PMC98430.
    102. Bergman DK, Palmer MJ, Caimano MJ, Radolf JD, Wikel SK. Isolation and molecular cloning of a secreted immunosuppressant protein from Dermacentor andersoni salivary gland. J Parasitol. 2000 Jun; 86(3):516-25. PMID: 10864249.
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    103. Caimano MJ, Yang X, Popova TG, Clawson ML, Akins DR, Norgard MV, Radolf JD. Molecular and evolutionary characterization of the cp32/18 family of supercoiled plasmids in Borrelia burgdorferi 297. Infect Immun. 2000 Mar; 68(3):1574-86. PMID: 10678977; PMCID: PMC97318.
    104. Sellati TJ, Wilkinson DA, Sheffield JS, Koup RA, Radolf JD, Norgard MV. Virulent Treponema pallidum, lipoprotein, and synthetic lipopeptides induce CCR5 on human monocytes and enhance their susceptibility to infection by human immunodeficiency virus type 1. J Infect Dis. 2000 Jan; 181(1):283-93. PMID: 10608777.
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    105. Lien E, Sellati TJ, Yoshimura A, Flo TH, Rawadi G, Finberg RW, Carroll JD, Espevik T, Ingalls RR, Radolf JD, Golenbock DT. Toll-like receptor 2 functions as a pattern recognition receptor for diverse bacterial products. J Biol Chem. 1999 Nov 19; 274(47):33419-25. PMID: 10559223.
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    106. Yang X, Popova TG, Hagman KE, Wikel SK, Schoeler GB, Caimano MJ, Radolf JD, Norgard MV. Identification, characterization, and expression of three new members of the Borrelia burgdorferi Mlp (2.9) lipoprotein gene family. Infect Immun. 1999 Nov; 67(11):6008-18. PMID: 10531261; PMCID: PMC96987.
    107. McBroom RL, Styles AR, Chiu MJ, Clegg C, Cockerell CJ, Radolf JD. Secondary syphilis in persons infected with and not infected with HIV-1: a comparative immunohistologic study. Am J Dermatopathol. 1999 Oct; 21(5):432-41. PMID: 10535571.
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    108. Sellati TJ, Bouis DA, Caimano MJ, Feulner JA, Ayers C, Lien E, Radolf JD. Activation of human monocytic cells by Borrelia burgdorferi and Treponema pallidum is facilitated by CD14 and correlates with surface exposure of spirochetal lipoproteins. J Immunol. 1999 Aug 15; 163(4):2049-56. PMID: 10438943.
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    109. Caimano MJ, Bourell KW, Bannister TD, Cox DL, Radolf JD. The Treponema denticola major sheath protein is predominantly periplasmic and has only limited surface exposure. Infect Immun. 1999 Aug; 67(8):4072-83. PMID: 10417176; PMCID: PMC96705.
    110. Aliprantis AO, Yang RB, Mark MR, Suggett S, Devaux B, Radolf JD, Klimpel GR, Godowski P, Zychlinsky A. Cell activation and apoptosis by bacterial lipoproteins through toll-like receptor-2. Science. 1999 Jul 30; 285(5428):736-9. PMID: 10426996.
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    111. Lee YH, Deka RK, Norgard MV, Radolf JD, Hasemann CA. Treponema pallidum TroA is a periplasmic zinc-binding protein with a helical backbone. Nat Struct Biol. 1999 Jul; 6(7):628-33. PMID: 10404217.
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    112. Deka RK, Lee YH, Hagman KE, Shevchenko D, Lingwood CA, Hasemann CA, Norgard MV, Radolf JD. Physicochemical evidence that Treponema pallidum TroA is a zinc-containing metalloprotein that lacks porin-like structure. J Bacteriol. 1999 Jul; 181(14):4420-3. PMID: 10400603; PMCID: PMC93947.
    113. Shevchenko DV, Sellati TJ, Cox DL, Shevchenko OV, Robinson EJ, Radolf JD. Membrane topology and cellular location of the Treponema pallidum glycerophosphodiester phosphodiesterase (GlpQ) ortholog. Infect Immun. 1999 May; 67(5):2266-76. PMID: 10225883; PMCID: PMC115966.
    114. Akins DR, Caimano MJ, Yang X, Cerna F, Norgard MV, Radolf JD. Molecular and evolutionary analysis of Borrelia burgdorferi 297 circular plasmid-encoded lipoproteins with OspE- and OspF-like leader peptides. Infect Immun. 1999 Mar; 67(3):1526-32. PMID: 10024606; PMCID: PMC96492.
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    116. Vincent MS, Roessner K, Sellati T, Huston CD, Sigal LH, Behar SM, Radolf JD, Budd RC. Lyme arthritis synovial gamma delta T cells respond to Borrelia burgdorferi lipoproteins and lipidated hexapeptides. J Immunol. 1998 Nov 15; 161(10):5762-71. PMID: 9820558.
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    117. Sellati TJ, Bouis DA, Kitchens RL, Darveau RP, Pugin J, Ulevitch RJ, Gangloff SC, Goyert SM, Norgard MV, Radolf JD. Treponema pallidum and Borrelia burgdorferi lipoproteins and synthetic lipopeptides activate monocytic cells via a CD14-dependent pathway distinct from that used by lipopolysaccharide. J Immunol. 1998 Jun 1; 160(11):5455-64. PMID: 9605148.
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    118. Hagman KE, Lahdenne P, Popova TG, Porcella SF, Akins DR, Radolf JD, Norgard MV. Decorin-binding protein of Borrelia burgdorferi is encoded within a two-gene operon and is protective in the murine model of Lyme borreliosis. Infect Immun. 1998 Jun; 66(6):2674-83. PMID: 9596733; PMCID: PMC108255.
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    120. Theus SA, Harrich DA, Gaynor R, Radolf JD, Norgard MV. Treponema pallidum, lipoproteins, and synthetic lipoprotein analogues induce human immunodeficiency virus type 1 gene expression in monocytes via NF-kappaB activation. J Infect Dis. 1998 Apr; 177(4):941-50. PMID: 9534966.
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    121. Bockenstedt LK, Hodzic E, Feng S, Bourrel KW, de Silva A, Montgomery RR, Fikrig E, Radolf JD, Barthold SW. Borrelia burgdorferi strain-specific Osp C-mediated immunity in mice. Infect Immun. 1997 Nov; 65(11):4661-7. PMID: 9353047; PMCID: PMC175668.
    122. Shevchenko DV, Akins DR, Robinson EJ, Li M, Shevchenko OV, Radolf JD. Identification of homologs for thioredoxin, peptidyl prolyl cis-trans isomerase, and glycerophosphodiester phosphodiesterase in outer membrane fractions from Treponema pallidum, the syphilis spirochete. Infect Immun. 1997 Oct; 65(10):4179-89. PMID: 9317025; PMCID: PMC175601.
    123. Hardham JM, Stamm LV, Porcella SF, Frye JG, Barnes NY, Howell JK, Mueller SL, Radolf JD, Weinstock GM, Norris SJ. Identification and transcriptional analysis of a Treponema pallidum operon encoding a putative ABC transport system, an iron-activated repressor protein homolog, and a glycolytic pathway enzyme homolog. Gene. 1997 Sep 15; 197(1-2):47-64. PMID: 9332349.
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    124. Akins DR, Robinson E, Shevchenko D, Elkins C, Cox DL, Radolf JD. Tromp1, a putative rare outer membrane protein, is anchored by an uncleaved signal sequence to the Treponema pallidum cytoplasmic membrane. J Bacteriol. 1997 Aug; 179(16):5076-86. PMID: 9260949; PMCID: PMC179365.
    125. Rolfs RT, Joesoef MR, Hendershot EF, Rompalo AM, Augenbraun MH, Chiu M, Bolan G, Johnson SC, French P, Steen E, Radolf JD, Larsen S. A randomized trial of enhanced therapy for early syphilis in patients with and without human immunodeficiency virus infection. The Syphilis and HIV Study Group. N Engl J Med. 1997 Jul 31; 337(5):307-14. PMID: 9235493.
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    126. Shevchenko DV, Akins DR, Robinson E, Li M, Popova TG, Cox DL, Radolf JD. Molecular characterization and cellular localization of TpLRR, a processed leucine-rich repeat protein of Treponema pallidum, the syphilis spirochete. J Bacteriol. 1997 May; 179(10):3188-95. PMID: 9150213; PMCID: PMC179096.
    127. Cope LD, Lumbley S, Latimer JL, Klesney-Tait J, Stevens MK, Johnson LS, Purven M, Munson RS, Lagergard T, Radolf JD, Hansen EJ. A diffusible cytotoxin of Haemophilus ducreyi. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1997 Apr 15; 94(8):4056-61. PMID: 9108104; PMCID: PMC20567.
    128. Klesney-Tait J, Hiltke TJ, Maciver I, Spinola SM, Radolf JD, Hansen EJ. The major outer membrane protein of Haemophilus ducreyi consists of two OmpA homologs. J Bacteriol. 1997 Mar; 179(5):1764-73. PMID: 9045839; PMCID: PMC178892.
    129. Stevens MK, Klesney-Tait J, Lumbley S, Walters KA, Joffe AM, Radolf JD, Hansen EJ. Identification of tandem genes involved in lipooligosaccharide expression by Haemophilus ducreyi. Infect Immun. 1997 Feb; 65(2):651-60. PMID: 9009327; PMCID: PMC176110.
    130. Lahdenne P, Porcella SF, Hagman KE, Akins DR, Popova TG, Cox DL, Katona LI, Radolf JD, Norgard MV. Molecular characterization of a 6.6-kilodalton Borrelia burgdorferi outer membrane-associated lipoprotein (lp6.6) which appears to be downregulated during mammalian infection. Infect Immun. 1997 Feb; 65(2):412-21. PMID: 9009290; PMCID: PMC174610.
    131. Stevens MK, Hassett DJ, Radolf JD, Hansen EJ. Cloning and sequencing of the gene encoding the Cu,Zn-superoxide dismutase of Haemophilus ducreyi. Gene. 1996 Dec 12; 183(1-2):35-40. PMID: 8996084.
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    132. Porcella SF, Popova TG, Hagman KE, Penn CW, Radolf JD, Norgard MV. A mgl-like operon in Treponema pallidum, the syphilis spirochete. Gene. 1996 Oct 24; 177(1-2):115-21. PMID: 8921855.
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    133. Rademacher SE, Radolf JD. Prominent osseous and unusual dermatologic manifestations of early syphilis in two patients with discordant serological statuses for human immunodeficiency virus infection. Clin Infect Dis. 1996 Sep; 23(3):462-7. PMID: 8879765.
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    134. Norgard MV, Arndt LL, Akins DR, Curetty LL, Harrich DA, Radolf JD. Activation of human monocytic cells by Treponema pallidum and Borrelia burgdorferi lipoproteins and synthetic lipopeptides proceeds via a pathway distinct from that of lipopolysaccharide but involves the transcriptional activator NF-kappa B. Infect Immun. 1996 Sep; 64(9):3845-52. PMID: 8751937; PMCID: PMC174301.
    135. Sellati TJ, Abrescia LD, Radolf JD, Furie MB. Outer surface lipoproteins of Borrelia burgdorferi activate vascular endothelium in vitro. Infect Immun. 1996 Aug; 64(8):3180-7. PMID: 8757851; PMCID: PMC174205.
    136. Cox DL, Akins DR, Bourell KW, Lahdenne P, Norgard MV, Radolf JD. Limited surface exposure of Borrelia burgdorferi outer surface lipoproteins. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1996 Jul 23; 93(15):7973-8. PMID: 8755587; PMCID: PMC38859.
    137. Porcella SF, Popova TG, Akins DR, Li M, Radolf JD, Norgard MV. Borrelia burgdorferi supercoiled plasmids encode multicopy tandem open reading frames and a lipoprotein gene family. J Bacteriol. 1996 Jun; 178(11):3293-307. PMID: 8655511; PMCID: PMC178083.
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    139. Akins DR, Porcella SF, Popova TG, Shevchenko D, Baker SI, Li M, Norgard MV, Radolf JD. Evidence for in vivo but not in vitro expression of a Borrelia burgdorferi outer surface protein F (OspF) homologue. Mol Microbiol. 1995 Nov; 18(3):507-20. PMID: 8748034.
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    140. Radolf JD, Robinson EJ, Bourell KW, Akins DR, Porcella SF, Weigel LM, Jones JD, Norgard MV. Characterization of outer membranes isolated from Treponema pallidum, the syphilis spirochete. Infect Immun. 1995 Nov; 63(11):4244-52. PMID: 7591054; PMCID: PMC173603.
    141. Norgard MV, Baker SI, Radolf JD. Chemiluminescent analysis of Borrelia burgdorferi penicillin-binding proteins using ampicillin conjugated to digoxigenin. Microb Pathog. 1995 Oct; 19(4):257-72. PMID: 8825913.
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    142. Hansen EJ, Lumbley SR, Saxen H, Kern K, Cope LD, Radolf JD. Detection of Haemophilus ducreyi lipooligosaccharide by means of an immunolimulus assay. J Immunol Methods. 1995 Sep 25; 185(2):225-35. PMID: 7561133.
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    143. Stevens MK, Cope LD, Radolf JD, Hansen EJ. A system for generalized mutagenesis of Haemophilus ducreyi. Infect Immun. 1995 Aug; 63(8):2976-82. PMID: 7622219; PMCID: PMC173404.
    144. Jones JD, Bourell KW, Norgard MV, Radolf JD. Membrane topology of Borrelia burgdorferi and Treponema pallidum lipoproteins. Infect Immun. 1995 Jul; 63(7):2424-34. PMID: 7790053; PMCID: PMC173324.
    145. Radolf JD, Goldberg MS, Bourell K, Baker SI, Jones JD, Norgard MV. Characterization of outer membranes isolated from Borrelia burgdorferi, the Lyme disease spirochete. Infect Immun. 1995 Jun; 63(6):2154-63. PMID: 7768594; PMCID: PMC173280.
    146. Radolf JD. Treponema pallidum and the quest for outer membrane proteins. Mol Microbiol. 1995 Jun; 16(6):1067-73. PMID: 8577243.
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    147. Alfa MJ, Stevens MK, DeGagne P, Klesney-Tait J, Radolf JD, Hansen EJ. Use of tissue culture and animal models to identify virulence-associated traits of Haemophilus ducreyi. Infect Immun. 1995 May; 63(5):1754-61. PMID: 7729882; PMCID: PMC173220.
    148. Norgard MV, Riley BS, Richardson JA, Radolf JD. Dermal inflammation elicited by synthetic analogs of Treponema pallidum and Borrelia burgdorferi lipoproteins. Infect Immun. 1995 Apr; 63(4):1507-15. PMID: 7890417; PMCID: PMC173182.
    149. Radolf JD, Arndt LL, Akins DR, Curetty LL, Levi ME, Shen Y, Davis LS, Norgard MV. Treponema pallidum and Borrelia burgdorferi lipoproteins and synthetic lipopeptides activate monocytes/macrophages. J Immunol. 1995 Mar 15; 154(6):2866-77. PMID: 7876555.
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    150. Cox DL, Akins DR, Porcella SF, Norgard MV, Radolf JD. Treponema pallidum in gel microdroplets: a novel strategy for investigation of treponemal molecular architecture. Mol Microbiol. 1995 Mar; 15(6):1151-64. PMID: 7623668.
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    151. Weigel LM, Radolf JD, Norgard MV. The 47-kDa major lipoprotein immunogen of Treponema pallidum is a penicillin-binding protein with carboxypeptidase activity. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1994 Nov 22; 91(24):11611-5. PMID: 7972112; PMCID: PMC45281.
    152. Riley BS, Oppenheimer-Marks N, Radolf JD, Norgard MV. Virulent Treponema pallidum promotes adhesion of leukocytes to human vascular endothelial cells. Infect Immun. 1994 Oct; 62(10):4622-5. PMID: 7927729; PMCID: PMC303152.
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    154. Belisle JT, Brandt ME, Radolf JD, Norgard MV. Fatty acids of Treponema pallidum and Borrelia burgdorferi lipoproteins. J Bacteriol. 1994 Apr; 176(8):2151-7. PMID: 8157583; PMCID: PMC205333.
    155. Becker PS, Akins DR, Radolf JD, Norgard MV. Similarity between the 38-kilodalton lipoprotein of Treponema pallidum and the glucose/galactose-binding (MglB) protein of Escherichia coli. Infect Immun. 1994 Apr; 62(4):1381-91. PMID: 8132345; PMCID: PMC186291.
    156. DeOgny L, Pramanik BC, Arndt LL, Jones JD, Rush J, Slaughter CA, Radolf JD, Norgard MV. Solid-phase synthesis of biologically active lipopeptides as analogs for spirochetal lipoproteins. Pept Res. 1994 Mar-Apr; 7(2):91-7. PMID: 8012126.
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    157. Bourell KW, Schulz W, Norgard MV, Radolf JD. Treponema pallidum rare outer membrane proteins: analysis of mobility by freeze-fracture electron microscopy. J Bacteriol. 1994 Mar; 176(6):1598-608. PMID: 8132453; PMCID: PMC205244.
    158. Weigel LM, Belisle JT, Radolf JD, Norgard MV. Digoxigenin-ampicillin conjugate for detection of penicillin-binding proteins by chemiluminescence. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 1994 Feb; 38(2):330-6. PMID: 8192459; PMCID: PMC284449.
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    160. Hansen EJ, Lumbley SR, Richardson JA, Purcell BK, Stevens MK, Cope LD, Datte J, Radolf JD. Induction of protective immunity to Haemophilus ducreyi in the temperature-dependent rabbit model of experimental chancroid. J Immunol. 1994 Jan 1; 152(1):184-92. PMID: 8254191.
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    161. Radolf JD, Bourell KW, Akins DR, Brusca JS, Norgard MV. Analysis of Borrelia burgdorferi membrane architecture by freeze-fracture electron microscopy. J Bacteriol. 1994 Jan; 176(1):21-31. PMID: 8282698; PMCID: PMC205010.
    162. Radolf JD. Southwestern Internal Medicine Conference: brucellosis: don't let it get your goat! Am J Med Sci. 1994 Jan; 307(1):64-75. PMID: 8291510.
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    163. Bryson Y, Dillon M, Bernstein DI, Radolf J, Zakowski P, Garratty E. Risk of acquisition of genital herpes simplex virus type 2 in sex partners of persons with genital herpes: a prospective couple study. J Infect Dis. 1993 Apr; 167(4):942-6. PMID: 8383724.
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    164. Akins DR, Purcell BK, Mitra MM, Norgard MV, Radolf JD. Lipid modification of the 17-kilodalton membrane immunogen of Treponema pallidum determines macrophage activation as well as amphiphilicity. Infect Immun. 1993 Apr; 61(4):1202-10. PMID: 8454324; PMCID: PMC281349.
    165. Sánchez PJ, Wendel GD, Grimprel E, Goldberg M, Hall M, Arencibia-Mireles O, Radolf JD, Norgard MV. Evaluation of molecular methodologies and rabbit infectivity testing for the diagnosis of congenital syphilis and neonatal central nervous system invasion by Treponema pallidum. J Infect Dis. 1993 Jan; 167(1):148-57. PMID: 8418161.
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    166. Hansen EJ, Latimer JL, Thomas SE, Helminen M, Albritton WL, Radolf JD. Use of electroporation to construct isogenic mutants of Haemophilus ducreyi. J Bacteriol. 1992 Aug; 174(16):5442-9. PMID: 1644771; PMCID: PMC206384.
    167. Riley BS, Oppenheimer-Marks N, Hansen EJ, Radolf JD, Norgard MV. Virulent Treponema pallidum activates human vascular endothelial cells. J Infect Dis. 1992 Mar; 165(3):484-93. PMID: 1347056.
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    168. Cox DL, Chang P, McDowall AW, Radolf JD. The outer membrane, not a coat of host proteins, limits antigenicity of virulent Treponema pallidum. Infect Immun. 1992 Mar; 60(3):1076-83. PMID: 1541522; PMCID: PMC257596.
    169. Brusca JS, McDowall AW, Norgard MV, Radolf JD. Localization of outer surface proteins A and B in both the outer membrane and intracellular compartments of Borrelia burgdorferi. J Bacteriol. 1991 Dec; 173(24):8004-8. PMID: 1744059; PMCID: PMC212599.
    170. Radolf JD, Norgard MV, Brandt ME, Isaacs RD, Thompson PA, Beutler B. Lipoproteins of Borrelia burgdorferi and Treponema pallidum activate cachectin/tumor necrosis factor synthesis. Analysis using a CAT reporter construct. J Immunol. 1991 Sep 15; 147(6):1968-74. PMID: 1890308.
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    171. Purcell BK, Richardson JA, Radolf JD, Hansen EJ. A temperature-dependent rabbit model for production of dermal lesions by Haemophilus ducreyi. J Infect Dis. 1991 Aug; 164(2):359-67. PMID: 1856485.
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    172. Grimprel E, Sanchez PJ, Wendel GD, Burstain JM, McCracken GH, Radolf JD, Norgard MV. Use of polymerase chain reaction and rabbit infectivity testing to detect Treponema pallidum in amniotic fluid, fetal and neonatal sera, and cerebrospinal fluid. J Clin Microbiol. 1991 Aug; 29(8):1711-8. PMID: 1761693; PMCID: PMC270188.
    173. Burstain JM, Grimprel E, Lukehart SA, Norgard MV, Radolf JD. Sensitive detection of Treponema pallidum by using the polymerase chain reaction. J Clin Microbiol. 1991 Jan; 29(1):62-9. PMID: 1993770; PMCID: PMC269704.
    174. Purcell BK, Swancutt MA, Radolf JD. Lipid modification of the 15 kiloDalton major membrane immunogen of Treponema pallidum. Mol Microbiol. 1990 Aug; 4(8):1371-9. PMID: 2280688.
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    175. Isaacs RD, Radolf JD. Expression in Escherichia coli of the 37-kilodalton endoflagellar sheath protein of Treponema pallidum by use of the polymerase chain reaction and a T7 expression system. Infect Immun. 1990 Jul; 58(7):2025-34. PMID: 2194955; PMCID: PMC258771.
    176. Brandt ME, Riley BS, Radolf JD, Norgard MV. Immunogenic integral membrane proteins of Borrelia burgdorferi are lipoproteins. Infect Immun. 1990 Apr; 58(4):983-91. PMID: 2318538; PMCID: PMC258571.
    177. Swancutt MA, Radolf JD, Norgard MV. The 34-kilodalton membrane immunogen of Treponema pallidum is a lipoprotein. Infect Immun. 1990 Feb; 58(2):384-92. PMID: 2404869; PMCID: PMC258467.
    178. Purcell BK, Chamberlain NR, Goldberg MS, Andrews LP, Robinson EJ, Norgard MV, Radolf JD. Molecular cloning and characterization of the 15-kilodalton major immunogen of Treponema pallidum. Infect Immun. 1989 Dec; 57(12):3708-14. PMID: 2680978; PMCID: PMC259894.
    179. Isaacs RD, Hanke JH, Guzman-Verduzco LM, Newport G, Agabian N, Norgard MV, Lukehart SA, Radolf JD. Molecular cloning and DNA sequence analysis of the 37-kilodalton endoflagellar sheath protein gene of Treponema pallidum. Infect Immun. 1989 Nov; 57(11):3403-11. PMID: 2680972; PMCID: PMC259836.
    180. Swancutt MA, Riley BS, Radolf JD, Norgard MV. Molecular characterization of the pathogen-specific, 34-kilodalton membrane immunogen of Treponema pallidum. Infect Immun. 1989 Nov; 57(11):3314-23. PMID: 2680970; PMCID: PMC259808.
    181. Hansen EJ, Pelzel SE, Orth K, Moomaw CR, Radolf JD, Slaughter CA. Structural and antigenic conservation of the P2 porin protein among strains of Haemophilus influenzae type b. Infect Immun. 1989 Nov; 57(11):3270-5. PMID: 2478470; PMCID: PMC259794.
    182. Jackman JD, Radolf JD. Cardiovascular syphilis. Am J Med. 1989 Oct; 87(4):425-33. PMID: 2679075.
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    183. Chamberlain NR, Brandt ME, Erwin AL, Radolf JD, Norgard MV. Major integral membrane protein immunogens of Treponema pallidum are proteolipids. Infect Immun. 1989 Sep; 57(9):2872-7. PMID: 2668191; PMCID: PMC313540.
    184. Chamberlain NR, DeOgny L, Slaughter C, Radolf JD, Norgard MV. Acylation of the 47-kilodalton major membrane immunogen of Treponema pallidum determines its hydrophobicity. Infect Immun. 1989 Sep; 57(9):2878-85. PMID: 2668192; PMCID: PMC313541.
    185. McGehee JL, Radolf JD, Toews GB, Hansen EJ. Effect of primary immunization on pulmonary clearance of nontypable Haemophilus influenzae. Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol. 1989 Sep; 1(3):201-10. PMID: 2624760.
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    186. Patrick CC, Pelzel SE, Miller EE, Haanes-Fritz E, Radolf JD, Gulig PA, McCracken GH, Hansen EJ. Antigenic evidence for simultaneous expression of two different lipooligosaccharides by some strains of Haemophilus influenzae type b. Infect Immun. 1989 Jul; 57(7):1971-8. PMID: 2786504; PMCID: PMC313829.
    187. Radolf JD, Moomaw C, Slaughter CA, Norgard MV. Penicillin-binding proteins and peptidoglycan of Treponema pallidum subsp. pallidum. Infect Immun. 1989 Apr; 57(4):1248-54. PMID: 2647634; PMCID: PMC313257.
    188. Radolf JD, Norgard MV, Schulz WW. Outer membrane ultrastructure explains the limited antigenicity of virulent Treponema pallidum. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1989 Mar; 86(6):2051-5. PMID: 2648388; PMCID: PMC286845.
    189. Hsu PL, Chamberlain NR, Orth K, Moomaw CR, Zhang LQ, Slaughter CA, Radolf JD, Sell S, Norgard MV. Sequence analysis of the 47-kilodalton major integral membrane immunogen of Treponema pallidum. Infect Immun. 1989 Jan; 57(1):196-203. PMID: 2642466; PMCID: PMC313069.
    190. Radolf JD, Norgard MV. Pathogen specificity of Treponema pallidum subsp. pallidum integral membrane proteins identified by phase partitioning with Triton X-114. Infect Immun. 1988 Jul; 56(7):1825-8. PMID: 3290110; PMCID: PMC259484.
    191. Borenstein LA, Radolf JD, Fehniger TE, Blanco DR, Miller JN, Lovett MA. Immunization of rabbits with recombinant Treponema pallidum surface antigen 4D alters the course of experimental syphilis. J Immunol. 1988 Apr 1; 140(7):2415-21. PMID: 2450921.
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    192. Radolf JD, Kaplan RP. Unusual manifestations of secondary syphilis and abnormal humoral immune response to Treponema pallidum antigens in a homosexual man with asymptomatic human immunodeficiency virus infection. J Am Acad Dermatol. 1988 Feb; 18(2 Pt 2):423-8. PMID: 2963840.
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    193. Radolf JD, Chamberlain NR, Clausell A, Norgard MV. Identification and localization of integral membrane proteins of virulent Treponema pallidum subsp. pallidum by phase partitioning with the nonionic detergent triton X-114. Infect Immun. 1988 Feb; 56(2):490-8. PMID: 3276627; PMCID: PMC259309.
    194. Chamberlain NR, Radolf JD, Hsu PL, Sell S, Norgard MV. Genetic and physicochemical characterization of the recombinant DNA-derived 47-kilodalton surface immunogen of Treponema pallidum subsp. pallidum. Infect Immun. 1988 Jan; 56(1):71-8. PMID: 3275588; PMCID: PMC259236.
    195. Gonzales FR, Leachman S, Norgard MV, Radolf JD, McCracken GH, Evans C, Hansen EJ. Cloning and expression in Escherichia coli of the gene encoding the heat-modifiable major outer membrane protein of Haemophilus influenzae type b. Infect Immun. 1987 Dec; 55(12):2993-3000. PMID: 2824380; PMCID: PMC260018.
    196. Radolf JD, Borenstein LA, Kim JY, Fehniger TE, Lovett MA. Role of disulfide bonds in the oligomeric structure and protease resistance of recombinant and native Treponema pallidum surface antigen 4D. J Bacteriol. 1987 Apr; 169(4):1365-71. PMID: 3549683; PMCID: PMC211954.
    197. Jacobson MA, Radolf JD, Young LS. Human IgG antibodies to Pseudomonas aeruginosa core lipopolysaccharide determinants are detected in chronic but not acute pseudomonas infection. Scand J Infect Dis. 1987; 19(6):649-60. PMID: 3126549.
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    198. Radolf JD, Blanco DR, Miller JN, Lovett MA. Antigenic interrelationship between endoflagella of Treponema phagedenis biotype Reiter and Treponema pallidum (Nichols): molecular characterization of endoflagellar proteins. Infect Immun. 1986 Dec; 54(3):626-34. PMID: 2430886; PMCID: PMC260215.
    199. Blanco DR, Radolf JD, Lovett MA, Miller JN. The antigenic interrelationship between the endoflagella of Treponema phagedenis biotype Reiter and Treponema pallidum Nichols strain. I. Treponemicidal activity of cross-reactive endoflagellar antibodies against T. pallidum. J Immunol. 1986 Nov 1; 137(9):2973-9. PMID: 3531343.
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    200. Blanco DR, Radolf JD, Lovett MA, Miller JN. Correlation of treponemicidal activity in normal human serum with the presence of IgG antibody directed against polypeptides of Treponema phagedenis biotype Reiter and Treponema pallidum, Nichols strain. J Immunol. 1986 Sep 15; 137(6):2031-6. PMID: 3528292.
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    201. Radolf JD, Lernhardt EB, Fehniger TE, Lovett MA. Serodiagnosis of syphilis by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay with purified recombinant Treponema pallidum antigen 4D. J Infect Dis. 1986 Jun; 153(6):1023-7. PMID: 3517186.
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    202. Fehniger TE, Radolf JD, Walfield AM, Cunningham TM, Miller JN, Lovett MA. Native surface association of a recombinant 38-kilodalton Treponema pallidum antigen isolated from the Escherichia coli outer membrane. Infect Immun. 1986 May; 52(2):586-93. PMID: 3516880; PMCID: PMC261041.
    203. Radolf JD, Fehniger TE, Silverblatt FJ, Miller JN, Lovett MA. The surface of virulent Treponema pallidum: resistance to antibody binding in the absence of complement and surface association of recombinant antigen 4D. Infect Immun. 1986 May; 52(2):579-85. PMID: 3699896; PMCID: PMC261040.
    204. Fehniger TE, Radolf JD, Lovett MA. Properties of an ordered ring structure formed by recombinant Treponema pallidum surface antigen 4D. J Bacteriol. 1986 Mar; 165(3):732-9. PMID: 3512520; PMCID: PMC214490.
    205. Fehniger TE, Walfield AM, Cunningham TM, Radolf JD, Miller JN, Lovett MA. Purification and characterization of a cloned protease-resistant Treponema pallidum-specific antigen. Infect Immun. 1984 Nov; 46(2):598-607. PMID: 6389353; PMCID: PMC261577.
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