Last Name

Louise D McCullough PhD, MD, FAHA

TitleAssociate Professor
InstitutionUConn Health Center
AddressMC 1840
MC 1840
263 Farmington Avenue
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    Other Positions
    TitleAssociate Professor
    InstitutionUConn Health Center

    TitleDirector of Stroke Research
    InstitutionHartford Hospital
    DepartmentStroke Center

    Collapse Bibliographic 
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    Publications listed below are automatically derived from MEDLINE/PubMed and other sources, which might result in incorrect or missing publications. Faculty can login to make corrections and additions.
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    1. Ritzel RM, Pan SJ, Verma R, Wizeman J, Crapser J, Patel AR, Lieberman R, Mohan R, McCullough LD. Early retinal inflammatory biomarkers in the middle cerebral artery occlusion model of ischemic stroke. Mol Vis. 2016; 22:575-88. PMID: 27293375.
      View in: PubMed
    2. Crapser J, Ritzel R, Verma R, Venna VR, Liu F, Chauhan A, Koellhoffer E, Patel A, Ricker A, Maas K, Graf J, McCullough LD. Ischemic stroke induces gut permeability and enhances bacterial translocation leading to sepsis in aged mice. Aging (Albany NY). 2016 May; 8(5):1049-63. PMID: 27115295.
      View in: PubMed
    3. Verma R, Harris NM, Friedler BD, Crapser J, Patel AR, Venna V, McCullough LD. Reversal of the Detrimental Effects of Post-Stroke Social Isolation by Pair-Housing is Mediated by Activation of BDNF-MAPK/ERK in Aged Mice. Sci Rep. 2016; 6:25176. PMID: 27125783.
      View in: PubMed
    4. Zanichkowsky R, Nascimento JA, McCune M, Spencer C, Chukwuneke F, Wyrick T, McCullough LD. Where Does the Time Go? The Effect of Protocols for Stroke Last Known Well Documentation on Intravenous Recombinant Tissue Plasminogen Activator Delivery in the Northeast. J Neurosci Nurs. 2016 Apr; 48(2):71-4. PMID: 26895568.
      View in: PubMed
    5. Ritzel RM, Crapser J, Patel AR, Verma R, Grenier JM, Chauhan A, Jellison ER, McCullough LD. Age-Associated Resident Memory CD8 T Cells in the Central Nervous System Are Primed To Potentiate Inflammation after Ischemic Brain Injury. J Immunol. 2016 Apr 15; 196(8):3318-30. PMID: 26962232.
      View in: PubMed
    6. Yuan H, Denton K, Liu L, Li XJ, Benashski S, McCullough L, Li J. Nuclear translocation of histone deacetylase 4 induces neuronal death in stroke. Neurobiol Dis. 2016 Jul; 91:182-93. PMID: 26969532.
      View in: PubMed
    7. Ahnstedt H, McCullough LD, Cipolla MJ. The Importance of Considering Sex Differences in Translational Stroke Research. Transl Stroke Res. 2016 Aug; 7(4):261-73. PMID: 26830778.
      View in: PubMed
    8. Brown RJ, Epling BP, Staff I, Fortunato G, Grady JJ, McCullough LD. Polyuria and cerebral vasospasm after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage. BMC Neurol. 2015; 15(1):201. PMID: 26462796; PMCID: PMC4604625.
    9. Conway SE, Roy-O'Reilly M, Friedler B, Staff I, Fortunato G, McCullough LD. Sex differences and the role of IL-10 in ischemic stroke recovery. Biol Sex Differ. 2015; 6:17. PMID: 26462256; PMCID: PMC4601121.
    10. Kim GS, Yang L, Zhang G, Zhao H, Selim M, McCullough LD, Kluk MJ, Sanchez T. Critical role of sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor-2 in the disruption of cerebrovascular integrity in experimental stroke. Nat Commun. 2015; 6:7893. PMID: 26243335; PMCID: PMC4587559 [Available on 02/05/16].
    11. O'Keefe LM, Conway SE, Czap A, Malchoff CD, Benashski S, Fortunato G, Staff I, McCullough LD. Thyroid hormones and functional outcomes after ischemic stroke. Thyroid Res. 2015; 8:9. PMID: 26157487; PMCID: PMC4495802.
    12. Venna VR, Benashski SE, Chauhan A, McCullough LD. Inhibition of glycogen synthase kinase-3ß enhances cognitive recovery after stroke: the role of TAK1. Learn Mem. 2015 Jul; 22(7):336-43. PMID: 26077686; PMCID: PMC4478333 [Available on 07/01/16].
    13. Kilbourn KJ, Killory BD, Fortunato G, Staff I, Sinisgalli S, Czap A, McCullough LD. Clinical Characteristics and Outcomes of Patients with Intracerebral Hemorrhage after Interhospital Transfer to a Designated Stroke Center. Conn Med. 2015 Jun-Jul; 79(6):335-41. PMID: 26263713.
      View in: PubMed
    14. Ritzel RM, Patel AR, Grenier JM, Crapser J, Verma R, Jellison ER, McCullough LD. Functional differences between microglia and monocytes after ischemic stroke. J Neuroinflammation. 2015; 12:106. PMID: 26022493; PMCID: PMC4465481.
    15. Howe MD, McCullough LD. Prevention and management of stroke in women. Expert Rev Cardiovasc Ther. 2015 Apr; 13(4):403-15. PMID: 25747877.
      View in: PubMed
    16. Ritzel RM, Patel AR, Pan S, Crapser J, Hammond M, Jellison E, McCullough LD. Age- and location-related changes in microglial function. Neurobiol Aging. 2015 Jun; 36(6):2153-63. PMID: 25816747.
      View in: PubMed
    17. Mirza MA, Ritzel R, Xu Y, McCullough LD, Liu F. Sexually dimorphic outcomes and inflammatory responses in hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy. J Neuroinflammation. 2015; 12:32. PMID: 25889641; PMCID: PMC4359482.
    18. Doran SJ, Trammel C, Benashaski SE, Venna VR, McCullough LD. Ultrasonic vocalization changes and FOXP2 expression after experimental stroke. Behav Brain Res. 2015 Apr 15; 283:154-61. PMID: 25644653; PMCID: PMC4581731 [Available on 04/15/16].
    19. Brown SA, McCullough LD, Loew LM. Computational neurobiology is a useful tool in translational neurology: the example of ataxia. Front Neurosci. 2015; 9:1. PMID: 25653585; PMCID: PMC4300942.
    20. Inoa V, McCullough LD. Generalized myoclonus: a rare manifestation of stroke. Neurohospitalist. 2015 Jan; 5(1):28-31. PMID: 25553226; PMCID: PMC4272347.
    21. Anderson M, Shelke NB, Manoukian OS, Yu X, McCullough LD, Kumbar SG. Peripheral Nerve Regeneration Strategies: Electrically Stimulating Polymer Based Nerve Growth Conduits. Crit Rev Biomed Eng. 2015; 43(2-3):131-59. PMID: 27278739.
      View in: PubMed
    22. Friedler B, Crapser J, McCullough L. One is the deadliest number: the detrimental effects of social isolation on cerebrovascular diseases and cognition. Acta Neuropathol. 2015 Apr; 129(4):493-509. PMID: 25537401; PMCID: PMC4369164 [Available on 04/01/16].
    23. Aron AW, Staff I, Fortunato G, McCullough LD. Prestroke living situation and depression contribute to initial stroke severity and stroke recovery. J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis. 2015 Feb; 24(2):492-9. PMID: 25524014; PMCID: PMC4315755 [Available on 02/01/16].
    24. Manwani B, Bentivegna K, Benashski SE, Venna VR, Xu Y, Arnold AP, McCullough LD. Sex differences in ischemic stroke sensitivity are influenced by gonadal hormones, not by sex chromosome complement. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab. 2015 Feb; 35(2):221-9. PMID: 25388681; PMCID: PMC4426738 [Available on 02/01/16].
    25. Kilbourn KJ, Ching G, Silverman DI, McCullough L, Brown RJ. Clinical outcomes after neurogenic stress induced cardiomyopathy in aneurysmal sub-arachnoid hemorrhage: a prospective cohort study. Clin Neurol Neurosurg. 2015 Jan; 128:4-9. PMID: 25462088.
      View in: PubMed
    26. Liu L, McCullough L, Li J. Genetic deletion of calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase kinase ß (CaMKK ß) or CaMK IV exacerbates stroke outcomes in ovariectomized (OVXed) female mice. BMC Neurosci. 2014; 15:118. PMID: 25331941; PMCID: PMC4207892.
    27. McCullough LD, de Vries GJ, Miller VM, Becker JB, Sandberg K, McCarthy MM. NIH initiative to balance sex of animals in preclinical studies: generative questions to guide policy, implementation, and metrics. Biol Sex Differ. 2014; 5:15. PMID: 25780556; PMCID: PMC4360141.
    28. Venna VR, Verma R, O'Keefe LM, Xu Y, Crapser J, Friedler B, McCullough LD. Inhibition of mitochondrial p53 abolishes the detrimental effects of social isolation on ischemic brain injury. Stroke. 2014 Oct; 45(10):3101-4. PMID: 25205311; PMCID: PMC4192598.
    29. McCullough LD, McCarthy MM, de Vries GJ. NIH policy: status quo is also costly. Nature. 2014 Jun 19; 510(7505):340. PMID: 24943945.
      View in: PubMed
    30. McCullough LD, Lichtman JH. Stroke: Comparable care, worse outcomes for women with stroke. Nat Rev Neurol. 2014 Jul; 10(7):367-8. PMID: 24934136.
      View in: PubMed
    31. Bushnell C, McCullough L. Stroke prevention in women: synopsis of the 2014 American Heart Association/American Stroke Association guideline. Ann Intern Med. 2014 Jun 17; 160(12):853-7. PMID: 24935489; PMCID: PMC4255708.
    32. Liu L, Doran S, Xu Y, Manwani B, Ritzel R, Benashski S, McCullough L, Li J. Inhibition of mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphatase-1 (MKP-1) increases experimental stroke injury. Exp Neurol. 2014 Nov; 261:404-11. PMID: 24842488.
      View in: PubMed
    33. McCullough LD, Beck K. Editor introduction to special issue. Exp Neurol. 2014 Sep; 259:1. PMID: 24837139.
      View in: PubMed
    34. Verma R, Friedler BD, Harris NM, McCullough LD. Pair housing reverses post-stroke depressive behavior in mice. Behav Brain Res. 2014 Aug 1; 269:155-63. PMID: 24793492; PMCID: PMC4114771.
    35. Venna VR, McCullough LD. Role of social factors on cell death, cerebral plasticity and recovery after stroke. Metab Brain Dis. 2015 Apr; 30(2):497-506. PMID: 24748365; PMCID: PMC4206683 [Available on 04/01/16].
    36. Venna VR, Li J, Hammond MD, Mancini NS, McCullough LD. Chronic metformin treatment improves post-stroke angiogenesis and recovery after experimental stroke. Eur J Neurosci. 2014 Jun; 39(12):2129-38. PMID: 24649970; PMCID: PMC4061245.
    37. Hammond MD, Taylor RA, Mullen MT, Ai Y, Aguila HL, Mack M, Kasner SE, McCullough LD, Sansing LH. CCR2+ Ly6C(hi) inflammatory monocyte recruitment exacerbates acute disability following intracerebral hemorrhage. J Neurosci. 2014 Mar 12; 34(11):3901-9. PMID: 24623768; PMCID: PMC3951693.
    38. Roy-O'Reilly M, McCullough LD. Sex differences in stroke: the contribution of coagulation. Exp Neurol. 2014 Sep; 259:16-27. PMID: 24560819.
      View in: PubMed
    39. Bushnell C, McCullough LD, Awad IA, Chireau MV, Fedder WN, Furie KL, Howard VJ, Lichtman JH, Lisabeth LD, Piña IL, Reeves MJ, Rexrode KM, Saposnik G, Singh V, Towfighi A, Vaccarino V, Walters MR. Guidelines for the prevention of stroke in women: a statement for healthcare professionals from the American Heart Association/American Stroke Association. Stroke. 2014 May; 45(5):1545-88. PMID: 24503673.
      View in: PubMed
    40. Venna VR, Xu Y, Doran SJ, Patrizz A, McCullough LD. Social interaction plays a critical role in neurogenesis and recovery after stroke. Transl Psychiatry. 2014; 4:e351. PMID: 24473442; PMCID: PMC3905235.
    41. Liu F, McCullough LD. The middle cerebral artery occlusion model of transient focal cerebral ischemia. Methods Mol Biol. 2014; 1135:81-93. PMID: 24510856.
      View in: PubMed
    42. Manwani B, Friedler B, Verma R, Venna VR, McCullough LD, Liu F. Perfusion of ischemic brain in young and aged animals: a laser speckle flowmetry study. Stroke. 2014 Feb; 45(2):571-8. PMID: 24357659; PMCID: PMC3946827.
    43. O'Keefe LM, Doran SJ, Mwilambwe-Tshilobo L, Conti LH, Venna VR, McCullough LD. Social isolation after stroke leads to depressive-like behavior and decreased BDNF levels in mice. Behav Brain Res. 2014 Mar 1; 260:162-70. PMID: 24211537; PMCID: PMC4225130.
    44. Shoup JP, Winkler J, Czap A, Staff I, Fortunato G, McCullough LD, Sansing LH. ß-Blockers associated with no class-specific survival benefit in acute intracerebral hemorrhage. J Neurol Sci. 2014 Jan 15; 336(1-2):127-31. PMID: 24183854.
      View in: PubMed
    45. Montaño A, Staff I, McCullough LD, Fortunato G. Community implementation of intravenous thrombolysis for acute ischemic stroke in the 3- to 4.5-hour window. Am J Emerg Med. 2013 Dec; 31(12):1707-9. PMID: 24060324.
      View in: PubMed
    46. Czap A, Shoup JP, Winkler J, Staff I, Fortunato G, Malchoff C, McCullough LD, Sansing LH. Intracerebral hemorrhage with hypothyroidism. J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis. 2013 Nov; 22(8):e602-9. PMID: 24045084.
      View in: PubMed
    47. Manwani B, Liu F, Scranton V, Hammond MD, Sansing LH, McCullough LD. Differential effects of aging and sex on stroke induced inflammation across the lifespan. Exp Neurol. 2013 Nov; 249:120-31. PMID: 23994069; PMCID: PMC3874380.
    48. Mirza MA, Capozzi LA, Xu Y, McCullough LD, Liu F. Knockout of vascular early response gene worsens chronic stroke outcomes in neonatal mice. Brain Res Bull. 2013 Sep; 98:111-21. PMID: 23973431; PMCID: PMC4275796.
    49. Rodrigues B, Staff I, Fortunato G, McCullough LD. Hyponatremia in the prognosis of acute ischemic stroke. J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis. 2014 May-Jun; 23(5):850-4. PMID: 23954607.
      View in: PubMed
    50. Liu F, McCullough LD. Inflammatory responses in hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy. Acta Pharmacol Sin. 2013 Sep; 34(9):1121-30. PMID: 23892271; PMCID: PMC3764334.
    51. McCullough LD, Tarabishy S, Liu L, Benashski S, Xu Y, Ribar T, Means A, Li J. Inhibition of calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase kinase ß and calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase IV is detrimental in cerebral ischemia. Stroke. 2013 Sep; 44(9):2559-66. PMID: 23868268; PMCID: PMC3845442.
    52. Winkler J, Shoup JP, Czap A, Staff I, Fortunato G, McCullough LD, Sansing LH. Long-term improvement in outcome after intracerebral hemorrhage in patients treated with statins. J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis. 2013 Nov; 22(8):e541-5. PMID: 23867041.
      View in: PubMed
    53. Phipps MS, Zeevi N, Staff I, Fortunato G, Kuchel GA, McCullough LD. Stroke severity and outcomes for octogenarians receiving statins. Arch Gerontol Geriatr. 2013 Nov-Dec; 57(3):377-82. PMID: 23815970.
      View in: PubMed
    54. Patel AR, Ritzel R, McCullough LD, Liu F. Microglia and ischemic stroke: a double-edged sword. Int J Physiol Pathophysiol Pharmacol. 2013; 5(2):73-90. PMID: 23750306; PMCID: PMC3669736.
    55. San Luis CO, Staff I, Fortunato GJ, McCullough LD. Dysphagia as a predictor of outcome and transition to palliative care among middle cerebral artery ischemic stroke patients. BMC Palliat Care. 2013; 12:21. PMID: 23663757; PMCID: PMC3665461.
    56. Manwani B, McCullough LD. Function of the master energy regulator adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase in stroke. J Neurosci Res. 2013 Aug; 91(8):1018-29. PMID: 23463465; PMCID: PMC4266469.
    57. Siegel CS, McCullough LD. NAD+ and nicotinamide: sex differences in cerebral ischemia. Neuroscience. 2013 May 1; 237:223-31. PMID: 23403179; PMCID: PMC3609901.
    58. Turtzo LC, Li J, Persky R, Benashski S, Weston G, Bucala R, Venna VR, McCullough LD. Deletion of macrophage migration inhibitory factor worsens stroke outcome in female mice. Neurobiol Dis. 2013 Jun; 54:421-31. PMID: 23376686; PMCID: PMC3628925.
    59. San Luis CO, Staff I, Ollenschleger MD, Fortunato GJ, McCullough LD. Percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy tube placement in left versus right middle cerebral artery stroke: effects of laterality. NeuroRehabilitation. 2013; 33(2):201-8. PMID: 23949048.
      View in: PubMed
    60. Koellhoffer EC, McCullough LD. The effects of estrogen in ischemic stroke. Transl Stroke Res. 2013 Aug; 4(4):390-401. PMID: 24323337; PMCID: PMC4275797.
    61. Persky RW, Liu F, Xu Y, Weston G, Levy S, Roselli CE, McCullough LD. Neonatal testosterone exposure protects adult male rats from stroke. Neuroendocrinology. 2013; 97(3):271-82. PMID: 23051877; PMCID: PMC3617085.
    62. Liu F, McCullough LD. Interactions between age, sex, and hormones in experimental ischemic stroke. Neurochem Int. 2012 Dec; 61(8):1255-65. PMID: 23068990; PMCID: PMC3516397.
    63. Azemi T, Rabdiya VM, Ayirala SR, McCullough LD, Silverman DI. Left atrial strain is reduced in patients with atrial fibrillation, stroke or TIA, and low risk CHADS(2) scores. J Am Soc Echocardiogr. 2012 Dec; 25(12):1327-32. PMID: 23067897.
      View in: PubMed
    64. Kilbourn KJ, Levy S, Staff I, Kureshi I, McCullough L. Clinical characteristics and outcomes of neurogenic stress cadiomyopathy in aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage. Clin Neurol Neurosurg. 2013 Jul; 115(7):909-14. PMID: 23021080.
      View in: PubMed
    65. Truong DT, Venna VR, McCullough LD, Fitch RH. Deficits in auditory, cognitive, and motor processing following reversible middle cerebral artery occlusion in mice. Exp Neurol. 2012 Dec; 238(2):114-21. PMID: 22921463.
      View in: PubMed
    66. Rosario M, Song SX, McCullough LD. An unusual case of stroke. Neurologist. 2012 Jul; 18(4):229-32. PMID: 22735255; PMCID: PMC3495309.
    67. Liu F, Turtzo LC, Li J, Regard J, Worley P, Zeevi N, McCullough LD. Loss of vascular early response gene reduces edema formation after experimental stroke. Exp Transl Stroke Med. 2012; 4(1):12. PMID: 22681709; PMCID: PMC3403842.
    68. White BJ, Tarabishy S, Venna VR, Manwani B, Benashski S, McCullough LD, Li J. Protection from cerebral ischemia by inhibition of TGFß-activated kinase. Exp Neurol. 2012 Sep; 237(1):238-45. PMID: 22683931; PMCID: PMC3418439.
    69. Manwani B, McCullough LD. Estrogen in ischaemic stroke: the debate continues. Eur J Neurol. 2012 Oct; 19(10):1276-7. PMID: 22564142; PMCID: PMC3416912.
    70. Venna VR, Weston G, Benashski SE, Tarabishy S, Liu F, Li J, Conti LH, McCullough LD. NF-?B contributes to the detrimental effects of social isolation after experimental stroke. Acta Neuropathol. 2012 Sep; 124(3):425-38. PMID: 22562356; PMCID: PMC4065798.
    71. Ritzel RM, Capozzi LA, McCullough LD. Sex, stroke, and inflammation: the potential for estrogen-mediated immunoprotection in stroke. Horm Behav. 2013 Feb; 63(2):238-53. PMID: 22561337; PMCID: PMC3426619.
    72. Knopf L, Staff I, Gomes J, McCullough L. Impact of a neurointensivist on outcomes in critically ill stroke patients. Neurocrit Care. 2012 Feb; 16(1):63-71. PMID: 21847702; PMCID: PMC3265609.
    73. Liu F, Benashski SE, Xu Y, Siegel M, McCullough LD. Effects of chronic and acute oestrogen replacement therapy in aged animals after experimental stroke. J Neuroendocrinol. 2012 Feb; 24(2):319-30. PMID: 22053957; PMCID: PMC3580836.
    74. Madej-Fermo OP, Staff I, Fortunato G, Abbott L, McCullough LD. Impact of emergency department transitions of care on thrombolytic use in acute ischemic stroke. Stroke. 2012 Apr; 43(4):1067-74. PMID: 22282889.
      View in: PubMed
    75. Zeevi N, Kuchel GA, Lee NS, Staff I, McCullough LD. Interventional stroke therapies in the elderly: are we helping? AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 2012 Apr; 33(4):638-42. PMID: 22116109.
      View in: PubMed
    76. Venna VR, Li J, Benashski SE, Tarabishy S, McCullough LD. Preconditioning induces sustained neuroprotection by downregulation of adenosine 5'-monophosphate-activated protein kinase. Neuroscience. 2012 Jan 10; 201:280-7. PMID: 22120436; PMCID: PMC3258333.
    77. Agnihotri S, Czap A, Staff I, Fortunato G, McCullough LD. Peripheral leukocyte counts and outcomes after intracerebral hemorrhage. J Neuroinflammation. 2011; 8:160. PMID: 22087759; PMCID: PMC3254078.
    78. Li L, Liu F, Welser-Alves JV, McCullough LD, Milner R. Upregulation of fibronectin and the a5ß1 and avß3 integrins on blood vessels within the cerebral ischemic penumbra. Exp Neurol. 2012 Jan; 233(1):283-91. PMID: 22056225; PMCID: PMC3748136.
    79. Hill CA, Alexander ML, McCullough LD, Fitch RH. Inhibition of X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis with embelin differentially affects male versus female behavioral outcome following neonatal hypoxia-ischemia in rats. Dev Neurosci. 2011; 33(6):494-504. PMID: 22041713; PMCID: PMC3357172.
    80. Alias M, Staff I, McCullough LD. Early experience with community implementation of thrombolysis three to 4.5 hours after acute ischemic stroke. Conn Med. 2011 Oct; 75(9):531-6. PMID: 22308640.
      View in: PubMed
    81. Venna VR, McCullough LD. "Won't you be my neighbor?": deciphering the mechanisms of neuroprotection induced by social interaction. Stroke. 2011 Dec; 42(12):3329-30. PMID: 21960565; PMCID: PMC3226850.
    82. Turtzo LC, Siegel C, McCullough LD. X chromosome dosage and the response to cerebral ischemia. J Neurosci. 2011 Sep 14; 31(37):13255-9. PMID: 21917808; PMCID: PMC3179179.
    83. Sansing LH, Kasner SE, McCullough L, Agarwal P, Welsh FA, Kariko K. Autologous blood injection to model spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage in mice. J Vis Exp. 2011; (54). PMID: 21876533; PMCID: PMC3217617.
    84. Manwani B, Liu F, Xu Y, Persky R, Li J, McCullough LD. Functional recovery in aging mice after experimental stroke. Brain Behav Immun. 2011 Nov; 25(8):1689-700. PMID: 21756996; PMCID: PMC3191237.
    85. Siegel C, Li J, Liu F, Benashski SE, McCullough LD. miR-23a regulation of X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis (XIAP) contributes to sex differences in the response to cerebral ischemia. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2011 Jul 12; 108(28):11662-7. PMID: 21709246; PMCID: PMC3136267.
    86. Li J, Benashski S, McCullough LD. Post-stroke hypothermia provides neuroprotection through inhibition of AMP-activated protein kinase. J Neurotrauma. 2011 Jul; 28(7):1281-8. PMID: 21446786; PMCID: PMC3136745.
    87. Manwani B, McCullough LD. Sexual dimorphism in ischemic stroke: lessons from the laboratory. Womens Health (Lond Engl). 2011 May; 7(3):319-39. PMID: 21612353; PMCID: PMC3128473.
    88. Hosley CM, McCullough LD. Acute neurological issues in pregnancy and the peripartum. Neurohospitalist. 2011 Apr; 1(2):104-16. PMID: 23983844; PMCID: PMC3726078.
    89. Rosario M, Tartar S, Spiegel G, McCullough L. Clinical reasoning: a case of progressive cognitive decline reversed by middle cerebral artery stent placement. Neurology. 2011 Mar 22; 76(12):e52-6. PMID: 21422450; PMCID: PMC3068010.
    90. Liu F, Benashski SE, Persky R, Xu Y, Li J, McCullough LD. Age-related changes in AMP-activated protein kinase after stroke. Age (Dordr). 2012 Feb; 34(1):157-68. PMID: 21360073; PMCID: PMC3260368.
    91. Liu F, Lang J, Li J, Benashski SE, Siegel M, Xu Y, McCullough LD. Sex differences in the response to poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 deletion and caspase inhibition after stroke. Stroke. 2011 Apr; 42(4):1090-6. PMID: 21311064; PMCID: PMC3066270.
    92. Liu F, McCullough LD. Middle cerebral artery occlusion model in rodents: methods and potential pitfalls. J Biomed Biotechnol. 2011; 2011:464701. PMID: 21331357; PMCID: PMC3035178.
    93. Siegel C, McCullough LD. NAD+ depletion or PAR polymer formation: which plays the role of executioner in ischaemic cell death? Acta Physiol (Oxf). 2011 Sep; 203(1):225-34. PMID: 21091637; PMCID: PMC3135708.
    94. Li J, Siegel M, Yuan M, Zeng Z, Finnucan L, Persky R, Hurn PD, McCullough LD. Estrogen enhances neurogenesis and behavioral recovery after stroke. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab. 2011 Feb; 31(2):413-25. PMID: 20940729; PMCID: PMC3049534.
    95. Siegel C, Turtzo C, McCullough LD. Sex differences in cerebral ischemia: possible molecular mechanisms. J Neurosci Res. 2010 Oct; 88(13):2765-74. PMID: 20698025.
      View in: PubMed
    96. Li J, Benashski SE, Venna VR, McCullough LD. Effects of metformin in experimental stroke. Stroke. 2010 Nov; 41(11):2645-52. PMID: 20847317; PMCID: PMC2994809.
    97. Zeevi N, Pachter J, McCullough LD, Wolfson L, Kuchel GA. The blood-brain barrier: geriatric relevance of a critical brain-body interface. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2010 Sep; 58(9):1749-57. PMID: 20863334.
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    98. Li J, Benashski SE, Siegel C, Liu F, McCullough LD. Adenosine monophosphate activated protein kinase inhibition is protective in both sexes after experimental stroke. Neurosci Lett. 2010 Sep 20; 482(1):62-5. PMID: 20621158; PMCID: PMC2937218.
    99. Zeevi N, McCullough LD. Mismatch: when the imaging studies conflict with the neurologic exam. J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis. 2011 Jan-Feb; 20(1):82-4. PMID: 20580258.
      View in: PubMed
    100. Zinchuk AV, Flanagan EP, Tubridy NJ, Miller WA, McCullough LD. Attitudes of US medical trainees towards neurology education: "Neurophobia" - a global issue. BMC Med Educ. 2010; 10:49. PMID: 20573257; PMCID: PMC2900283.
    101. Blondin NA, Staff I, Lee N, McCullough LD. Thrombolysis in right versus left hemispheric stroke. J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis. 2010 Jul-Aug; 19(4):269-72. PMID: 20471856.
      View in: PubMed
    102. Liu F, Akella P, Benashski SE, Xu Y, McCullough LD. Expression of Na-K-Cl cotransporter and edema formation are age dependent after ischemic stroke. Exp Neurol. 2010 Aug; 224(2):356-61. PMID: 20406636; PMCID: PMC2906683.
    103. Knauft W, Chhabra J, McCullough LD. Emergency department arrival times, treatment, and functional recovery in women with acute ischemic stroke. J Womens Health (Larchmt). 2010 Apr; 19(4):681-8. PMID: 20187750; PMCID: PMC2940485.
    104. Persky RW, Turtzo LC, McCullough LD. Stroke in women: disparities and outcomes. Curr Cardiol Rep. 2010 Jan; 12(1):6-13. PMID: 20425178; PMCID: PMC2861793.
    105. Li J, McCullough LD. Effects of AMP-activated protein kinase in cerebral ischemia. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab. 2010 Mar; 30(3):480-92. PMID: 20010958; PMCID: PMC2852687.
    106. Schafer DP, Jha S, Liu F, Akella T, McCullough LD, Rasband MN. Disruption of the axon initial segment cytoskeleton is a new mechanism for neuronal injury. J Neurosci. 2009 Oct 21; 29(42):13242-54. PMID: 19846712; PMCID: PMC2801423.
    107. Franco T, Roque C, Khorasanizadeh S, McCullough LD. A 25-year-old man with progressive left-sided weakness and a mass lesion on brain imaging. J Postgrad Med. 2009 Jul-Sep; 55(3):214-9. PMID: 19884753; PMCID: PMC2855684.
    108. McCullough LD, Dearborn J. Stroke-risk perception in women: getting the message out. Womens Health (Lond Engl). 2009 May; 5(3):225-8. PMID: 19392606.
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    109. Liu F, Li Z, Li J, Siegel C, Yuan R, McCullough LD. Sex differences in caspase activation after stroke. Stroke. 2009 May; 40(5):1842-8. PMID: 19265047; PMCID: PMC2674515.
    110. Yuan M, Siegel C, Zeng Z, Li J, Liu F, McCullough LD. Sex differences in the response to activation of the poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase pathway after experimental stroke. Exp Neurol. 2009 May; 217(1):210-8. PMID: 19268668; PMCID: PMC2672307.
    111. Liu F, Yuan R, Benashski SE, McCullough LD. Changes in experimental stroke outcome across the life span. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab. 2009 Apr; 29(4):792-802. PMID: 19223913; PMCID: PMC2748430.
    112. Dearborn JL, McCullough LD. Perception of risk and knowledge of risk factors in women at high risk for stroke. Stroke. 2009 Apr; 40(4):1181-6. PMID: 19211481; PMCID: PMC2709972.
    113. Li J, McCullough LD. Sex differences in minocycline-induced neuroprotection after experimental stroke. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab. 2009 Apr; 29(4):670-4. PMID: 19190654; PMCID: PMC2855881.
    114. Liu F, Schafer DP, McCullough LD. TTC, fluoro-Jade B and NeuN staining confirm evolving phases of infarction induced by middle cerebral artery occlusion. J Neurosci Methods. 2009 Apr 30; 179(1):1-8. PMID: 19167427; PMCID: PMC2674851.
    115. McCullough LD, Koerner IP, Hurn PD. Effects of gender and sex steroids on ischemic injury. Handb Clin Neurol. 2009; 92:149-69. PMID: 18790274.
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    116. Fakhouri T, McCullough LD. Delayed treatment of basilar thrombosis in a patient with a basilar aneurysm: a case report. J Med Case Rep. 2008; 2:353. PMID: 19017388; PMCID: PMC2600649.
    117. Turtzo LC, McCullough LD. Sex differences in stroke. Cerebrovasc Dis. 2008; 26(5):462-74. PMID: 18810232; PMCID: PMC2637395.
    118. Lang JT, McCullough LD. Pathways to ischemic neuronal cell death: are sex differences relevant? J Transl Med. 2008; 6:33. PMID: 18573200; PMCID: PMC2459157.
    119. Li J, Liang X, Wang Q, Breyer RM, McCullough L, Andreasson K. Misoprostol, an anti-ulcer agent and PGE2 receptor agonist, protects against cerebral ischemia. Neurosci Lett. 2008 Jun 20; 438(2):210-5. PMID: 18472336; PMCID: PMC2621308.
    120. Li J, Lang J, Zeng Z, McCullough LD. Akt1 gene deletion and stroke. J Neurol Sci. 2008 Jun 15; 269(1-2):105-12. PMID: 18258266; PMCID: PMC2424314.
    121. Li J, Zeng Z, Viollet B, Ronnett GV, McCullough LD. Neuroprotective effects of adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase inhibition and gene deletion in stroke. Stroke. 2007 Nov; 38(11):2992-9. PMID: 17901380; PMCID: PMC2637379.
    122. Fogal B, Li J, Lobner D, McCullough LD, Hewett SJ. System x(c)- activity and astrocytes are necessary for interleukin-1 beta-mediated hypoxic neuronal injury. J Neurosci. 2007 Sep 19; 27(38):10094-105. PMID: 17881516.
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    123. Liang X, Wu L, Wang Q, Hand T, Bilak M, McCullough L, Andreasson K. Function of COX-2 and prostaglandins in neurological disease. J Mol Neurosci. 2007 Sep; 33(1):94-9. PMID: 17901552.
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    124. Zeevi N, Chhabra J, Silverman IE, Lee NS, McCullough LD. Acute stroke management in the elderly. Cerebrovasc Dis. 2007; 23(4):304-8. PMID: 17199089.
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    125. Silverman IE, Beland DK, Chhabra J, McCullough LD. The "drip-and-ship" approach: starting IV t-PA for acute ischemic stroke at outside hospitals prior to transfer to a regional stroke center. Conn Med. 2005 Nov-Dec; 69(10):613-20. PMID: 16381108.
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    126. Craft TK, Glasper ER, McCullough L, Zhang N, Sugo N, Otsuka T, Hurn PD, DeVries AC. Social interaction improves experimental stroke outcome. Stroke. 2005 Sep; 36(9):2006-11. PMID: 16100018.
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    127. Li H, Pin S, Zeng Z, Wang MM, Andreasson KA, McCullough LD. Sex differences in cell death. Ann Neurol. 2005 Aug; 58(2):317-21. PMID: 15988750.
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    128. McCullough LD, Zeng Z, Blizzard KK, Debchoudhury I, Hurn PD. Ischemic nitric oxide and poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 in cerebral ischemia: male toxicity, female protection. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab. 2005 Apr; 25(4):502-12. PMID: 15689952.
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    129. McCullough LD, Zeng Z, Li H, Landree LE, McFadden J, Ronnett GV. Pharmacological inhibition of AMP-activated protein kinase provides neuroprotection in stroke. J Biol Chem. 2005 May 27; 280(21):20493-502. PMID: 15772080.
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    130. Ardelt AA, McCullough LD, Korach KS, Wang MM, Munzenmaier DH, Hurn PD. Estradiol regulates angiopoietin-1 mRNA expression through estrogen receptor-alpha in a rodent experimental stroke model. Stroke. 2005 Feb; 36(2):337-41. PMID: 15637314.
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    131. Graham SM, McCullough LD, Murphy SJ. Animal models of ischemic stroke: balancing experimental aims and animal care. Comp Med. 2004 Oct; 54(5):486-96. PMID: 15575362.
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    132. Li X, Blizzard KK, Zeng Z, DeVries AC, Hurn PD, McCullough LD. Chronic behavioral testing after focal ischemia in the mouse: functional recovery and the effects of gender. Exp Neurol. 2004 May; 187(1):94-104. PMID: 15081592.
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    133. McCullough L, Wu L, Haughey N, Liang X, Hand T, Wang Q, Breyer RM, Andreasson K. Neuroprotective function of the PGE2 EP2 receptor in cerebral ischemia. J Neurosci. 2004 Jan 7; 24(1):257-68. PMID: 14715958.
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    134. Murphy SJ, McCullough LD, Smith JM. Stroke in the female: role of biological sex and estrogen. ILAR J. 2004; 45(2):147-59. PMID: 15111734.
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    135. McCullough LD, Blizzard K, Simpson ER, Oz OK, Hurn PD. Aromatase cytochrome P450 and extragonadal estrogen play a role in ischemic neuroprotection. J Neurosci. 2003 Sep 24; 23(25):8701-5. PMID: 14507969.
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    136. McCullough LD, Hurn PD. Estrogen and ischemic neuroprotection: an integrated view. Trends Endocrinol Metab. 2003 Jul; 14(5):228-35. PMID: 12826329.
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    137. Murphy S, McCullough L, Littleton-Kearney M, Hurn P. Estrogen and selective estrogen receptor modulators: neuroprotection in the Women's Health Initiative era. Endocrine. 2003 Jun; 21(1):17-26. PMID: 12777699.
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    138. McCullough LD, Alkayed NJ, Traystman RJ, Williams MJ, Hurn PD. Postischemic estrogen reduces hypoperfusion and secondary ischemia after experimental stroke. Stroke. 2001 Mar; 32(3):796-802. PMID: 11239204.
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    139. McCullough LD, Beauchamp NB, Wityk R. Recent advances in the diagnosis and treatment of stroke. Surv Ophthalmol. 2001 Jan-Feb; 45(4):317-30. PMID: 11166343.
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    140. Salamone JD, Kurth P, McCullough LD, Sokolowski JD. The effects of nucleus accumbens dopamine depletions on continuously reinforced operant responding: contrasts with the effects of extinction. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 1995 Mar; 50(3):437-43. PMID: 7617683.
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    141. Salamone JD, Cousins MS, McCullough LD, Carriero DL, Berkowitz RJ. Nucleus accumbens dopamine release increases during instrumental lever pressing for food but not free food consumption. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 1994 Sep; 49(1):25-31. PMID: 7816884.
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    142. Sokolowski JD, McCullough LD, Salamone JD. Effects of dopamine depletions in the medial prefrontal cortex on active avoidance and escape in the rat. Brain Res. 1994 Jul 18; 651(1-2):293-9. PMID: 7922578.
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    143. Salamone JD, Kurth PA, McCullough LD, Sokolowski JD, Cousins MS. The role of brain dopamine in response initiation: effects of haloperidol and regionally specific dopamine depletions on the local rate of instrumental responding. Brain Res. 1993 Nov 19; 628(1-2):218-26. PMID: 8313150.
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    144. McCullough LD, Cousins MS, Salamone JD. The role of nucleus accumbens dopamine in responding on a continuous reinforcement operant schedule: a neurochemical and behavioral study. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 1993 Nov; 46(3):581-6. PMID: 8278435.
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    145. McCullough LD, Sokolowski JD, Salamone JD. A neurochemical and behavioral investigation of the involvement of nucleus accumbens dopamine in instrumental avoidance. Neuroscience. 1993 Feb; 52(4):919-25. PMID: 8450978.
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    146. McCullough LD, Salamone JD. Involvement of nucleus accumbens dopamine in the motor activity induced by periodic food presentation: a microdialysis and behavioral study. Brain Res. 1992 Oct 2; 592(1-2):29-36. PMID: 1450917.
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    147. McCullough LD, Salamone JD. Increases in extracellular dopamine levels and locomotor activity after direct infusion of phencyclidine into the nucleus accumbens. Brain Res. 1992 Apr 10; 577(1):1-9. PMID: 1521135.
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    148. McCullough LD, Salamone JD. Anxiogenic drugs beta-CCE and FG 7142 increase extracellular dopamine levels in nucleus accumbens. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 1992; 109(3):379-82. PMID: 1365640.
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    149. Salamone JD, Steinpreis RE, McCullough LD, Smith P, Grebel D, Mahan K. Haloperidol and nucleus accumbens dopamine depletion suppress lever pressing for food but increase free food consumption in a novel food choice procedure. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 1991; 104(4):515-21. PMID: 1780422.
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    150. Salamone JD, Johnson CJ, McCullough LD, Steinpreis RE. Lateral striatal cholinergic mechanisms involved in oral motor activities in the rat. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 1990; 102(4):529-34. PMID: 2096410.
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